Big black holes can block new stars

Big black holes can block new stars
Elliptical galaxy NGC 1132, as seen by NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory; the blue/purple in the image is the X-ray glow from hot, diffuse gas that is not forming into stars. Credit: NASA, ESA, M. West (ESO, Chile), and CXC/Penn State University/G. Garmire, et al.

Massive black holes spewing out radio-frequency-emitting particles at near-light speed can block formation of new stars in aging galaxies, a study has found.

The research provides crucial new evidence that it is these jets of "radio-frequency feedback" streaming from mature galaxies' central that prevent hot free gas from cooling and collapsing into baby stars.

"When you look into the past history of the universe, you see these galaxies building stars," said Tobias Marriage, assistant professor of physics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins and co-lead author of the study. "At some point, they stop forming stars and the question is: Why? Basically, these active black holes give a reason for why stars stop forming in the universe."

The findings have been published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. They were made possible by adaptation of a well-known research technique for use in solving a new problem.

Johns Hopkins postdoctoral fellow Megan Gralla found that the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect signature – typically used to study large galaxy clusters – can also be used to learn a great deal about smaller formations. The SZ effect occurs when high-energy electrons in hot gas interact with faint light in the cosmic microwave background, light left over from earliest times when the universe was a thousand times hotter and a billion times denser than today.

"The SZ is usually used to study clusters of hundreds of galaxies but the galaxies we're looking for are much smaller and have just a companion or two," Gralla said.

"What we're doing is asking a different question than what has been previously asked," Gralla said. "We're using a technique that's been around for some time and that researchers have been very successful with, and we're using it to answer a totally different question in a totally different subfield of astronomy."

"I was stunned when I saw this paper, because I've never thought that detecting the SZ effect from active galactic nuclei was possible," said Eiichiro Komatsu, director of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany and an expert in the field who was not involved in the research. "I was wrong. ... It makes those of us who work on the SZ effect from galaxy clusters feel old; research on the SZ effect has entered a new era."

In space, hot gas drawn into a galaxy can cool and condense, forming stars. Some gas also funnels down into the galaxy's black hole, which grows together with the stellar population. This cycle can repeat continuously; more gas is pulled in to cool and condense, more stars begin to shine and the central black hole grows more massive.

But in nearly all mature galaxies – the big galaxies called "elliptical" because of their shape – that gas doesn't cool any more. "If gas is kept hot, it can't collapse," Marriage said. When that happens: No new stars.

Marriage, Gralla and their collaborators found that the elliptical galaxies with radio-frequency feedback – relativistic radio-frequency-emitting particles shooting from the massive central black holes at their center at close to the speed of light – all contain hot gas and a dearth of infant . That provides crucial evidence for their hypothesis that this radio-frequency feedback is the "off switch" for star-making in mature galaxies.

Marriage said, however, that it is still not known just why black holes in mature elliptical galaxies begin to emit radio-frequency feedback. "The exact mechanism behind this is not fully understood and there are still debates," he said.

Komatsu said that the new Johns Hopkins-led study, combined with others detecting SZ signals from more ordinary galaxies, "pose new challenges to the theory of galaxy formation, as there were hardly any data which told us how much hot gas there is around ."


Explore further

Elliptical galaxies: Chandra helps explain 'red and dead galaxies'

More information: "A Measurement of the Millimetre Emission and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Associated with Low-Frequency Radio Sources," Megan B. Gralla et al., 2014, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 445, No. 1: mnras.oxfordjournals.org/content/445/1/460 , Preprint: arxiv.org/abs/1310.8281
Citation: Big black holes can block new stars (2014, October 21) retrieved 22 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-10-big-black-holes-block-stars.html
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Oct 21, 2014
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Oct 21, 2014
Fascinating. Now, combine this with the magnetic origin of jets, and we may start being able to model the formation of these elliptical galaxies.

Oct 21, 2014
@Da Schneib would fermi Bubbles have some bearing on this?

Oct 22, 2014
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Oct 22, 2014
They don't even know what a black hole is but it can block new stars. Be a cold day in hell when I believe that one.

Oct 22, 2014
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Oct 22, 2014
Henri Poincare already prove with mathematic, if all behind is extremely fast particle, matter should expanding very fast all a time!

google: Le Sages theory of gravitation.

Onesimpleprinciple model tell where that extremely fast all behind movement coming from and why it is so extremely fast movement!

EternalLove


Could you have someone translate that into English?

I'm interested to know what you're rambling about.

Oct 22, 2014
@Da Schneib would fermi Bubbles have some bearing on this?
Might well. Actually, the other way 'round; this new understanding may help explain Fermi Bubbles. They do, after all, appear to be emanating from the galactic center. And we know there's a black hole there; we've seen stars orbiting it, whose mass we can calculate, and the orbits they're in could only be around a black hole. Nothing else makes a strong enough gravity field. And that means there's an accretion disk, a source of a strong magnetic field (as this result shows).

Good question! 5 stars.

Oct 22, 2014
we may start being able to model the formation of these elliptical galaxies.
Elliptical galaxies are very old ones, where tidal forces made the shape of galaxies regular ("star-making in mature galaxies").
Errr, that theory went out about 1940 or so. Actually it appears they're no older than the rest of the galaxies; they just stopped star formation due to a different mechanism than the one that stopped it in spiral galaxies.

You know, like it says in the article. You should read it.

++++++++++++++++

Could you have someone translate that into English?

I'm interested to know what you're rambling about.
Are you really sure you want to know? It might be negative information, that is, when you're done assimilating it you'll know less than you did before. ;)

Oct 26, 2014
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Oct 26, 2014
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Oct 26, 2014
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Oct 26, 2014
I'm sure most of us realized various forms of radiation from black hole environments could stop stellar production on a Galactic scale.

I don't think it matters too much in the long term. On cosmic time scales the black holes will eventually go dormant and the gas will cool and form new stars resembling "first generation stars" from this intergalactic matter, based on their composition.

It just might be a few hundred million years to several billion years before it happens, depending on which galactic system you are studying, and whether future collisions occur to re-start black hole feeding and metal-rich star production from collisions (stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giants feeding on the other galaxy's nebula during a fly-by, etc).

I think the inter-galactic matter in some cases will cool as DE effect moves galaxies away from one another. Alternatively, inter-galactic matter which is very hot, but gravitationally bound, may for satellite dwarf galaxies.

Oct 26, 2014
What could be the reason the process of formation of new stars in the universe to stop in current days ? There are huge gas clouds into space, but how they remained for billions of years without emerging proto stars to exhaust their content?


Hydrogen and Helium are still gaseous even at temperatures as cold as the microwave background. You need oxygen and carbon to make stars and planets, because you need liquids or solids in the form of molecular water or methane to form "dust" for stars to form. These molecular clouds can clump due to partial charges of water. Other metal oxides can also assist, such as silicates and iron.

Electro-chemical bonds and electrostatic attraction are apparently the main drivers of proto-star and proto-planet formation, and Water, not pure hydrogen or helium, is actually a critical component of seeding the process due to it's asymmetric partial charge allowing clumping to form physical liquid or solid objects.

Oct 26, 2014
pure hydrogen and helium wouldn't collapse into a star except under circumstances more dense and cooler than most of the nebula regions you see in a photograph.

First Generation stars probably formed due to the universe having critical density at random locations. Maybe it's whatever DE or DM are which played a role in forming first generation stars.

I'm not saying pure hydrogen stars can't form from random nebular interactions, its just not easy for it to happen. this is why mainstream theories resort to compression waves from supernova to initiate star formation by compressing second generation nebula, as well as seeding them with denser elements(carbon, oxygen, iron, silicon,) and molecules with partial charge, i.e. water or any asymmetric molecule.

there are nebula where hydrogen/helium stars are forming, but pure hydrogen/helium is not the main driver of modern star formation. It's molecular dust near absolute zero.

Oct 26, 2014
The AWT ...do allow quantum evaporation
@ZEPHIR/tritace
the AW (NOT a theory) as well as DAW is conjecture based upon a failed and debunked hypothesis that is proven with the following links:
http://exphy.uni-...2009.pdf
as well as
http://arxiv.org/...1284.pdf

in order for something to be called a "scientific theory" it must pass a series of tests of which aether and its off shoot beliefs failed miserably in the above experiments

the experiment above proves to an incredibly high degree that your aw/daw is pseudoscience and is false
therefore your references are to a faith or a religion and not to science

quit trolling and spamming the science site with known pseudoscience and religious dogma

Oct 26, 2014
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Oct 26, 2014
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Oct 27, 2014
Lrrkrrr
Hydrogen and Helium are still gaseous even at temperatures as cold as the microwave background
In what form do these materials exist in interstellar space?

"The neutral hydrogen is distributed in clumpy fashion with cool, denser regions that astronomers call "clouds" but which are more like filaments. These regions have a typical temperature of about 100K and a density between 10--100 atoms/cm3. Surrounding the clouds is a warmer lower density medium with about 0.1 atom/cm3 and T ~ 1000K."

-Why are you talking about interstellar He and H2 in solid or liquid terms?

Oct 27, 2014
Lrrkrrr
You need oxygen and carbon to make stars and planets, because you need liquids or solids in the form of molecular water or methane to form "dust" for stars to form. These molecular clouds can clump due to partial charges of water... Electro-chemical bonds and electrostatic attraction are apparently the main drivers of proto-star
"The first stars in the Universe are predicted to have been much more massive than the Sun... Gravitational condensation, accompanied by cooling of the primordial gas via molecular hydrogen, yields a minimum fragmentation scale of a few hundred solar masses. Numerical simulations indicate that once a gas clump acquires this mass it undergoes a slow, quasi-hydrostatic contraction without further fragmentation"

-Youre full of shit again as usual.

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