Lonely this Christmas? Hire an 18th century hermit

December 20, 2013
The hermitage, Spetchley Park, Worcestershire

For those who are wondering what to buy the person who has everything this Christmas, a University of Leicester academic has suggested one of history's most bizarre garden accessories: an 'ornamental' hermit.

The hermit could even help manage your winter blues as, according to Professor Gordon Campbell of the University's School of English, the wealthy 18th century landowners who indulged in the practice would 'outsource' their melancholy while enjoying life to the full.

The author of "The Hermit in the Garden: From Imperial Rome to Garden Gnome," Professor Campbell has investigated the little-known history of the ornamental hermit, a tradition with its roots in Ancient Rome but still present in the form of the humble garden gnome.

In the 18th century, it was highly fashionable for owners of country estates to commission architectural follies for their landscape gardens, many of which included hermitages comprising of a small cottage, cave or contemplative gazebo.

Often, landowners would inhabit their hermitages with imaginary or, in some cases, real hermits.

Professor Campbell explains: "One needed an estate and a taste for restrained ostentation, and one could certainly show off one's hermit to visitors.

Lonely this Christmas? Hire an 18th century hermit
The Hermitage at Oriel Temple

"Hermits were often hired for seven years, required to refrain from cutting their hair or washing and had to live austerely. They could receive up to £600 in return, enough to never work again.

"It meant that the busy CEO could outsource his melancholy, contemplative side, embodying it in a hermit for hire. The ideal of living frugally did not therefore inhibit the good life. It's a bit like bankers carving turkeys for the homeless on Christmas Day."

Despite this, Professor Campbell argues that the motivations behind hiring a hermit reflect a lost appreciation of emotional depth, or the 'pleasing melancholy'.

Professor Campbell said: "In the eighteenth century, melancholy became highly desirable but the cult of pleasing melancholy has since disappeared. We now refer to the mental state as depression, and that is a clinical condition that is anything but pleasing.

"This idea that melancholy could be profound was not new in the eighteenth century. Hamlet's preference for dressing entirely in black is not meant to be a fashion statement, but rather than indication of his melancholy, and the implication of that state of mind was emotional depth.

"The idea of keeping an ornamental hermit in one's garden is an eighteenth-century phenomenon, but I trace the idea from its origins in Hadrian's villa near Tivoli up to the present."

Dunkeld Hermitage

The idea of hiring a hermit may not sit well with modern sensibilities but for those tempted to embrace their own melancholic side, a simple hermitage may suffice.

Professor Campbell adds: "Many hermits were imagined, so the hermitage would be stocked with some eyeglasses and some reading material for the use of a hermit who had perpetually stepped out for a moment.

"In the same spirit, we leave out sherry and biscuits for Santa, and some carrots for his reindeer."

And of course, one could continue the tradition at a much cheaper cost with the purchase of a simple gnome.

"The Hermit in the Garden: From Imperial Rome to Garden Gnome" by Professor Gordon Campbell is published by OUP.

Explore further: Which came first, hermits or kings?

Related Stories

Which came first, hermits or kings?

August 27, 2013

Heather Bracken-Grissom, marine sciences professor in the FIU Department of Biological Sciences, has helped answer one of the most debated questions among evolutionary biologists: Did the hermit crab evolve into the king ...

Hermit crabs socialize to evict their neighbors

October 26, 2012

Social animals usually congregate for protection or mating or to capture bigger prey, but a University of California, Berkeley, biologist has found that the terrestrial hermit crab has a more self-serving social agenda: to ...

Social networking helps hermit crabs find homes (w/ Video)

April 26, 2010

Everyone wants to live in the nicest possible house, ideally with regular upgrades. A recent study by biologists at Tufts University's School of Arts and Sciences and the New England Aquarium reveals that hermit crabs may ...

Science raises weighty question with travelling gnome

March 20, 2012

Physicists looking at anomalies in Earth's gravity have turned to a garden gnome named Kern, which has been shipped around the globe to have himself weighed at locations ranging from Lima, Mumbai and Mexico to Sydney, New ...

Recommended for you

Water striders illustrate evolutionary processes

October 19, 2017

How do new species arise and diversify in nature? Natural selection offers an explanation, but the genetic and environmental conditions behind this mechanism are still poorly understood. A team led by Abderrahman Khila at ...

New discovery challenges long-held evolutionary theory

October 19, 2017

Monash scientists involved in one of the world's longest evolution experiments have debunked an established theory with a study that provides a 'high-resolution' view of the molecular details of adaptation.

Gene editing in the brain gets a major upgrade

October 19, 2017

Genome editing technologies have revolutionized biomedical science, providing a fast and easy way to modify genes. However, the technique allowing scientists to carryout the most precise edits, doesn't work in cells that ...

Gut bacteria from wild mice boost health in lab mice

October 19, 2017

Laboratory mice that are given the gut bacteria of wild mice can survive a deadly flu virus infection and fight colorectal cancer dramatically better than laboratory mice with their own gut bacteria, researchers report October ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.