Climate talks eye revenue from shipping

October 6, 2011 by Shaun Tandon
Cargo ships unload at a port terminal in the Philippines. With nations facing gaping shortfalls meeting pledges on climate change, several governments and activist groups are pushing to put a price on shipping emissions to fund aid to poor countries.

With nations facing gaping shortfalls meeting pledges on climate change, several governments and activist groups are pushing to put a price on shipping emissions to fund aid to poor countries.

Commercial ships virtually always run on and produce nearly three percent of the world's blamed for -- twice as much as Australia -- but are unregulated under the .

Shipping has come under renewed focus in UN-led talks on a post-Kyoto framework which are coincidentally being held in Panama, whose flag flies on 20 percent of the world's merchant vessels and is home to the vital canal.

Germany has spearheaded the idea of setting a price on shipping emissions and devoting proceeds to the new Green Climate Fund, which aims to mobilize $100 billion a year by 2020 in aid to low-lying islands and other poor nations seen as most vulnerable to climate change.

The money has been in question with top donors Japan, the European Union and the United States all facing internal challenges. Experts say the world is also far off from the UN-enshrined of limiting warming to 2.0 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) to prevent climate change's worst consequences.

"We fully recognize that shipping is one of the most efficient forms of transporting goods, but we can't get away from the sheer scale of emissions if we're serious about meeting the 2.0-degree target," said Tim Gore of aid group Oxfam.

The revenue "would be generated independently of any that might be facing and they would come year-on-year in predictable fashion and can easily be scaled up over time," he said.

How the carbon proposal would work remains under discussion. France has supported the idea and called for a market trading system in maritime carbon emissions rather than an outright tax.

Activists hope that France will push forward the idea when it leads the Group of 20 major economies' summit next month and that the year-end UN climate conference in Durban, South Africa would put it in writing, allowing talks to start to make it a reality.

The World Bank and IMF, in a research paper submitted last month to Group of 20 finance ministers and obtained by AFP, said that setting a $25 charge per ton of carbon dioxide from aviation and maritime bunker fuels would generate $250 billion in 2020 and reduce each sector's emissions by five to 10 percent.

For political reasons, activists have sought to separate the shipping and aviation issues. Airlines, backed by governments including the United States and China, have fiercely fought a European Union proposal to tax air emissions.

Concerns from the shipping sector have been more muted. The International Maritime Organization in July adopted energy efficiency standards to reduce emissions and has been studying the levy idea.

The UN agency said that its move marked the first time that an international industry sector has mandated reductions in greenhouse gases, though environmentalists say that the effort will only make a dent.

But the idea of putting a price on shipping emissions has drawn fire from major emerging economies such as China and India, which are concerned that it would treat vessels from rich and developing nations in the same way.

International maritime rules have traditionally applied to all ships regardless of origin due to fears that vessels could easily skirt more complex regulations.

But successive accords of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change have recognized that advanced economies bear more historic responsibility for global warming and should do more.

As a solution, Gore of Oxfam proposed that part of the carbon revenue would be directed to developing countries to ensure that their industries are not put at a disadvantage.

Shaun Goh, a transport ministry official from Singapore, said that any levy needed to consider that some countries -- such as his own -- are more dependent on shipping and also ensure that the industry as a whole does not suffer.

"We don't deny that shipping, as well as probably aviation, has a role to play in climate finance. But the question is what role they would play and to what degree," he said.

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3 / 5 (4) Oct 06, 2011
How to collect more money? That is the only thing the 'Man Made Global Warming' hoaxers care about.
1.8 / 5 (5) Oct 07, 2011
How to collect more money? That is the only thing the 'Man Made Global Warming' hoaxers care about.

No, they also want to control scientific information and people.

In fact,
a.) Climate change occurs, and
b.) Life continues to evolve, because
c.) Earth's heat source continues to evolve [1].

World leaders, Al Gore, the UN IPCC, the US NAS, the UK RS, and the editors of Nature, Science, PNAS and MPRS cannot change reality.

They could and did successfully destroyed public confidence in their leadership by trying to control scientific information and people.

1. "Origin and Evolution of Life and the Sun"
Journal of Modern Physics 2, 587-594 (2011)


With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
Former NASA Principal
Investigator for Apollo
not rated yet Oct 07, 2011
Oliver, do you not know of phase 2 of the plan? see kissinger and nixon knew about neutron repulsion and it being the main source of the suns and the universes power but chairman mao did not. as the world all followed their lead in the conspiracy they said it was to prevent nuclear war. however under the guise of that the united states had different reasons. as the climatoligists/scientists destroy our economy and power while funneling money to third world nations for supportung the scam the chinese will soon grow too strong and overpopulated for anyone but the us to even have a chance of stopping the chinese from taking over the world, at that moment neutron repulsion will be officially "discovered" and cheap easy neutron repulsion energy will be used both to power production of weapons and supplies and as weapons of mass destruction themselves in neutron repulsion bombs. saving the united states and allowing us to finally take over the whole world without looking like the bad guys...
not rated yet Oct 08, 2011
Since Oliver has claimed he would answer questions
I will respond to questions, as time permits, but I do not have time to argue with those who will not read information published in peer-reviewed papers [1-6]
I have read them and he knows it. Clearly he has ample time considering the number of posts he makes has been increasing.

Where is evidence for Iron in the those solar flare images you like to use? They only have TRACES of iron.

Where is the evidence that neutrons repel each other in a way that is different from the Pauli Exclusion Principle?

Where is someone that supports your idea that the Sun is a pulsar? And how did that a pulsar form IF there is such a thing as neutron repulsion?

Since you are now claiming that neutron repulsion can blow galaxies apart how did they form in the first place since with neutron repulsion of that magnitude even stars WITH neutron stars in them could not form nor could they retain planets.

The papers do NOT cover these.


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