The economics of nice folks

A basic tenet of economics is that people always behave selfishly, or as the 18th century philosopher economist David Hume put it, "every man ought to be supposed to be a knave."

But what if some people aren't always knaves?

Sam Bowles argues in Science June 20 that economics will get it wrong then, sometimes badly so. He points to new experimental evidence that people do often act against their own personal self-interest in favor of the common good, and they do so in predictable, understandable ways. Poorly-designed economic institutions fail to take advantage of intrinsic moral behavior and often undermine it. .

Take this example: Six day care centers imposed a fine on parents who picked their children up late. The effect? Tardiness doubled, and it stayed high even when the fine was removed. Parents, it seems, stopped seeing lateness as an imposition on teachers, and instead saw it as something that could be purchased with no moral failing.

Another example is a study this year which showed that women donated blood less frequently when they were paid for it than when it was an act of charity.

These examples show that economists ignore human altruism at their peril. Standard economic theory assumes that incentives that appeal to self-interest won't affect any natural altruism that may exist, but that assumption is clearly wrong. Bowles discusses the research to date that helps to explain when and why that assumption breaks down.

As the world becomes more interconnected and the resulting challenges to humanity increase, learning to harness these altruistic impulses becomes even more important, Bowles says. So the economists' "holy grail," to learn to design institutions and policies to direct the selfish impulses of individuals to public ends, "will be necessary but insufficient," Bowles says. "The moral nature of humans must also be recognized, cultivated, and empowered."

Source: Santa Fe Institute


Explore further

CFOs indicate they would be willing to accept a solution to the 'fiscal cliff' that includes tax increases, survey finds

Citation: The economics of nice folks (2008, June 19) retrieved 19 June 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-06-economics-nice-folks.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
0 shares

Feedback to editors

User comments

Jun 22, 2008
This misses the point:
By acting to destroy "altruism", the mechanisms of our civilization can MAKE humanity fit the non-altruistic model.

Then, nothing would question it.

Therefore, it would be valid.

The anomaly that existed before doesn't count, if it doesn't remain.

The segregation of rights that our new authority-technology world enacts removes the anomaly of individual rights, right?

What's different?

Mar 16, 2009
Interesting, I'd like to understand your points better...

To clarify, do you mean that altruism and/or the individual doing something that is not explained by a model is "anomalous".

What do you mean by "segregation of rights?"

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more