New indicator for oxygen levels in early oceans developed

Oxygen is essential for the development of higher life. However, it was hardly present in the oceans of the young Earth. It was not until the evolution of photosynthetic bacteria that the oceans saw a significant increase ...

A deep reservoir of primordial helium in the Earth

Noble gases, including helium, neon, and argon, are characterized by high chemical inertness which causes low reactivity with other materials and high volatility. Among them, 3He, 20Ne, and 36Ar are particular isotopes which ...

Lifestyle changes to keep the world from warming up

Scientists widely agree that we must limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius to avoid catastrophic climate impacts. Environmental scientist Laura Scherer investigates how we should change lifestyles to achieve this temperature ...

Climate change: How bad could the future be if we do nothing?

The climate crisis is no longer a looming threat—people are now living with the consequences of centuries of greenhouse gas emissions. But there is still everything to fight for. How the world chooses to respond in the ...

What are waterspouts, and how do they form?

Waterspouts are extraordinary, impressive weather events. Observers describe them as looking like "the start of an alien invasion" and post their snaps across social media.