Some Super-Earths Form in Super Snowstorms

Oct 11, 2006

The 200 known planets that orbit other stars exhibit incredible variety. Among them are a handful of worlds that weigh between 5 and 15 times Earth. Astronomers believe these "super-Earths" are rocky iceballs rather than gas giants like Jupiter. While theorists can explain how such worlds form around Sun-like stars, the discovery of super-Earths around tiny red dwarf stars was surprising. New research suggests that some super-Earths build up rapidly when local temperatures drop and ices condense out of the surrounding gas.

"We believe that some super-Earths form during a cosmic 'snowstorm.' Only this snowstorm envelops the whole planet and lasts millions of years," said astronomer Scott Kenyon of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

All planets form within a disk of gas and dust surrounding a newborn star. Rocky planets form close to the star, where it is warm, while icy and gaseous planets form farther out, where it is cold. When it was young, the Sun was relatively stable, leading to a natural progression of small, rocky worlds in the hot inner solar system and large, gaseous worlds in the cold outer solar system.

In contrast, planetary systems around small red dwarf stars undergo dramatic changes in their early history. As the young star evolves, it dims. The warm inner disk starts to freeze, creating conditions where water and other volatile gases condense into snowflakes and ice pellets.

"It's like a massive cold front that sweeps inward toward the star," explained first author Grant Kennedy of Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia. "The ices add mass to a growing planet, and also make it easier for particles to stick together. The two effects combine to produce a planet several times the size of Earth."

The disks that surround small red dwarf stars tend to contain less material than the disk that formed the solar system. Without the "snowstorms" in these smaller disks, there is not enough material to make super-Earths.

Although astronomers have discovered a few super-Earths orbiting red dwarf stars, it may be tough to find worlds hospitable to humans. All of the known super-Earths are icy worlds with no liquid water. Red dwarf stars are so dim and cool that their warm "habitable zones" are very close to the star, where there is very little planet-forming material.

"It's difficult to make anything larger than Mercury or Mars in the habitable zone of a red dwarf," said Kenyon.

The astronomers presented their calculations in a paper authored by Kennedy, Kenyon, and Benjamin Bromley (University of Utah). That paper has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters and is posted online at arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0609140 .

The team now plans to conduct detailed numerical simulations to derive typical timescales for the formation of super-Earths around red dwarf stars.

Source: Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Explore further: Gravitational waves according to Planck

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Superior Super Earths

Nov 30, 2009

Super Earths are named for their size, but these planets - which range from about 2 to 10 Earth masses - could be superior to the Earth when it comes to sustaining life. They could also provide an answer to ...

Recommended for you

Gravitational waves according to Planck

8 hours ago

Scientists of the Planck collaboration, and in particular the Trieste team, have conducted a series of in-depth checks on the discovery recently publicized by the Antarctic Observatory, which announced last spring that it ...

Infant solar system shows signs of windy weather

8 hours ago

Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have observed what may be the first-ever signs of windy weather around a T Tauri star, an infant analog of our own Sun. This may help ...

Finding hints of gravitational waves in the stars

15 hours ago

Scientists have shown how gravitational waves—invisible ripples in the fabric of space and time that propagate through the universe—might be "seen" by looking at the stars. The new model proposes that ...

How gamma ray telescopes work

16 hours ago

Yesterday I talked about the detection of gamma ray bursts, intense blasts of gamma rays that occasionally appear in distant galaxies. Gamma ray bursts were only detected when gamma ray satellites were put ...

The frequency of high-energy gamma ray bursts

17 hours ago

In the 1960s a series of satellites were built as part of Project Vela.  Project Vela was intended to detect violations of the 1963 ban on above ground testing of nuclear weapons.  The Vela satellites were ...

User comments : 0