Hubble Witnesses Spectacular Flaring in Gas Jet from M87's Black Hole

Apr 14, 2009
These images taken in ultraviolet light by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveal the brightening of a jet of gas blasting from the core of the gigantic elliptical galaxy M87. M87 is located 54 million light-years away in the Virgo Cluster. The flare-up is coming from a knot of hot gas, called HST-1, embedded in the jet. The jet is powered by accretion onto a supermassive black hole, one of the most massive black holes yet discovered. (NASA, ESA, and J. Madrid (McMaster University))

(PhysOrg.com) -- A flare-up in a jet of matter blasting from a monster black hole is giving astronomers an incredible light show.

The outburst is coming from a blob of matter, called HST-1, embedded in the jet, a powerful narrow beam of hot gas produced by a residing in the core of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. HST-1 is so bright that it is outshining even M87's brilliant core, whose monster black hole is one of the most massive yet discovered.

The glowing gas clump has taken astronomers on a rollercoaster ride of suspense. Astronomers watched HST-1 brighten steadily for several years, then fade, and then brighten again. They say it's hard to predict what will happen next.

NASA's has been following the surprising activity for seven years, providing the most detailed ultraviolet-light view of the event. Other telescopes have been monitoring HST-1 in other wavelengths, including radio and X-rays. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was the first to report the brightening in 2000. HST-1 was first discovered and named by Hubble astronomers in 1999. The gas knot is 214 light-years from the galaxy's core.

The flare-up may provide insights into the variability of black hole jets in distant galaxies, which are difficult to study because they are too far away. M87 is located 54 million light-years away in the Virgo Cluster, a region of the nearby universe with the highest density of galaxies.

"I did not expect the jet in M87 or any other jet powered by accretion onto a black hole to increase in brightness in the way that this jet does," says astronomer Juan Madrid of McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, who conducted the Hubble study. "It grew 90 times brighter than normal. But the question is, does this happen to every single jet or active nucleus, or are we seeing some odd behavior from M87?"

Hubble gives astronomers a unique near-ultraviolet view of the flare that cannot be accomplished with ground-based telescopes. "Hubble's sharp vision allows it to resolve HST-1 and separate it from the black hole," Madrid explains.

Despite the many observations by Hubble and other telescopes, astronomers are not sure what is causing the brightening. One of the simplest explanations is that the jet is hitting a dust lane or gas cloud and then glows due to the collision. Another possibility is that the jet's magnetic field lines are squeezed together, unleashing a large amount of energy. This phenomenon is similar to how solar flares develop on the Sun and is even a mechanism for creating Earth's auroras.

The disk around a rapidly spinning black hole has magnetic field lines that entrap ionized gas falling toward the black hole. These particles, along with radiation, flow rapidly away from the black hole along the lines. The rotational energy of the spinning accretion disk adds momentum to the outflowing jet.

Madrid assembled seven years' worth of Hubble archival images of the jet to capture changes in the HST-1's behavior over time. Hubble's view of the event. Some of the images came from observing programs that studied the galaxy, but not the jet.

He found data from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) that showed a noticeable brightening between 1999 and 2001. In images from 2002 to 2005, HST-1 continued to rise steadily in brightness. In 2003 the jet knot was more brilliant than M87's luminous core. In May 2005 HST-1 became 90 times brighter than it was in 1999. After May 2005 the flare began to fade, but it intensified again in November 2006. This second outburst was fainter than the first one.

"By watching the outburst over several years, I was able to follow the brightness and see the evolution of the flare over time," Madrid says. "We are lucky to have telescopes like Hubble and Chandra, because without them we would see the increase in brightness in the core of M87, but we would not know where it was coming from."

Madrid hopes that future observations of HST-1 will reveal the cause of the mysterious activity. "We hope the observations will yield some theories that will give us some good explanations as to the mechanism that is causing the flaring," Madrid says. "Astronomers would like to know if this is an intrinsic instability of the jet when it plows its way out of the galaxy, or if it is something else."

The study's results are published in the April 2009 issue of the Astronomical Journal.

Provided by European Space Agency (news : web)

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earls
5 / 5 (3) Apr 14, 2009
yyz
3 / 5 (4) Apr 14, 2009
A fascinating related paper appears on todays%u2019 arXiv.org site here: http://arxiv.org/...57v1.pdf . This paper just presents another piece of the puzzle of %u2018what is the jet of M 87 representing?%u2019 & %u2018what powers this celestial powerhouse?%u2019. Certainly deep, deep questions regarding a complicated observed phenomenon.This story is a good reckoning of how multidisciplinary and multiwavelength observations over a sufficient period of time can help astrophysicists decipher the actual physics taking place here. But I am also in agreement with researcher Juan Madrid in that %u201Cthe question is, does this happen to every single jet or active nucleus, or are we seeing some odd behavior from M87?%u201D Also, some quasars, microquasars, active galactic nuclei, some supernovae and newly born stars all seem to exhibit some form of jet phenomenon, so research on the astrophysical nature of jets may answer questions among many diverse systems in our universe. Do all these jet phenomena share a common mechanism or are there substantial differences between them?
yyz
2.3 / 5 (3) Apr 14, 2009
Another radio-wave look at variability in M 87%u2019s jet can be found in this recent 2008 paper: http://arxiv.org/...03.1837. As being one of the closest (if not the closest radio galaxy) with a jet, M 87 deserves close multiwavelength and temporal scrutiny from the astronomical community (and it appears it%u2019s getting it).
gaetanomarano
1 / 5 (2) Apr 14, 2009
sorry to say that (in my opinion) the Hubble SM4 has up to 50% of risks to FAIL, as explained in this article:

http://www.ghostn...sks.html

then, it should be deleted forever
brant
3.5 / 5 (4) Apr 14, 2009
"Another possibility is that the jet's magnetic field lines are squeezed together, unleashing a large amount of energy."

That would be your classical "plasma pinch".....
omatumr
1 / 5 (5) Apr 15, 2009
Sorry. There are no Black Holes. Rest masses of the 3,000 different types of nuclei that comprise the visible universe [http://www.omatumr.com/Data/2000Data.htm" title="http://http://www.omatumr.com/Data/2000Data.htm" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">http://www.omatum...Data.htm] clearly show that repulsive forces between neutrons prevent the collapse of neutron stars into Black Holes [See: "Neutron repulsion confirmed as energy source", Journal of Fusion Energy 20 (2003) 197-201].

http://www.omatumr.com/abstracts2003/jfe-neutronrep.pdf" title="http://http://www.omatumr.com/abstracts2003/jfe-neutronrep.pdf" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">http://www.omatum...nrep.pdf

The cosmos may have neutron stars of various sizes, including the one at the core of the Sun that sustains life here on Earth, but the concept of Black Holes is now obsolete.

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
http://www.omatumr.com/
http://myprofile....anuelo09
Stein
2 / 5 (4) Apr 15, 2009
Hello yyz

Black hole jets are likely to be a common phenomenon in massive black holes of galaxies. Once a black hole reaches its maximum mass it will emit all further accreted matter and photons in jet emissions. This is the reason for the irregularity of the jet emissions.

This emission is in the form of dark energy. Dark energy particles are created in the black hole, when photons and other matter is crushed by gravity to brake the bond of the Strong force between component particles.

Once dark energy particles are separated they travel at 1.4 times the speed of light and can therefore escape from the black hole. This occurs at the polar jets of black holes of galaxies.

Once outside the black hole it is only a matter of time before the dark energy particles will join into pairs such as photons and other particles.

In the line of the jets there is a greater abundance of dark energy and as such there will be greater activity in the formation of photons and other matter. This is the reason why x-ray photons are seen along the jets when items are emitted.

Unlike what is proposed in the text attached to your article, I would suggest that relativistic electrons are not involved in this process. Photons are created at the jets without the involvement of any electrons. The photon frequency is the result of the spin of the dark energy particle as it escapes from the black hole.

In case you are interested in this process and in the structure of the photon, I have posted my explanation of the photon particle and its implications with respect to black hole jets in the comments at Physorg.com/news156450506 in the article of Black hole Eternal Prison No More by S Hawking.

I would be interested in your comments.

Cheers Zwei Stein
omatumr
1 / 5 (5) Apr 15, 2009
Sorry, Stein. There are no Black Holes.

1. Precise experimental data for rest masses of the 3,000 different types of nuclei [See: Nuclear Wallet Cards (National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY) that comprise the visible universe show conclusively that the n-n interaction is strongly repulsive [See: "Neutron repulsion confirmed as energy source", Journal of Fusion Energy 20 (2003) 197-201 or "Nuclear systematics: III. The source of solar luminosity", Journal of Radioanalytical & Nuclear Chemistry 252 (2002) 3-7].

2. Astronomical observations show a universe that is fragmenting, as interstellar space is filled with Hydrogen (Like the 50,000 billion metric tons of Hydrogen that depart from our Sun each year in the Solar Wind).

These observations also imply that there was no Big Bang that filled our universe with Hydrogen.

The Sun, other stars, and the cosmos are powered by repulsive interactions between neutrons in dense nuclear objects at the cores of stars and galaxies that result in:

(a) neutron emission, and/or
(b) fission

I.e., (a) Neutron star --> n --> H+ + e- --> H
OR (b) Neutron star --(fissions)--> Cosmic explosion

Our conclusions were explained in a 14-page paper, "The nuclear cycle that powers the stars: Fusion, gravitational collapse and dissociation," submitted to the Hirschegg Workshop 06: Astrophysics and Nuclear Structure, Hirschegg, Austria, 15-21 Jan 2006

http://arxiv.org/.../0511379

The experimental basis is explained in more detail in a 20-page manuscript: "Isotopes tell origin and operation of the Sun," AIP Conference Proceedings, volume 822 (2006) pp. 206-225

http://arxiv.org/.../0510001

Cheers, Oliver K. Manuel
yyz
2.3 / 5 (3) Apr 15, 2009
While poking around at the Hubble (US) site, I stumbled across the very paper this story refers to. Interested readers can find the complete 5 page paper here: http://hubblesite.../pdf.pdf . The section on possible causes proves most interesting.
omatumr
1.6 / 5 (5) Apr 15, 2009
Intriguing paper, yyz.

According to the paper, "dramatic and unexpected flaring activity since early 2000" has occurred in "HST-1, a knot along the M87 jet located 0."85 from the nucleus of the galaxy".

"The outburst observed in HST-1 is at odds with the common definition of active galactic nucleus variability usually linked to blazars and originating in close proximity to the central black hole."







Oliver K. Manuel
Stein
1.3 / 5 (4) Apr 16, 2009
Hello omatumr
Thank you for your opinion.
I do question the valdity of the Big Bang strongly
But neutrons do not show any repulsion energy at all In fact they reduce repulsion in the nucleus.

Neutron stars are not formed by grvitational collaps quite the opposite.

Black holes do exist and are basically extra large neutron stars.

The M87 jets are the result of black hole emissions of dark energy which transforms into matter and photons along a lne of the jets which eminate from the poles of the neutron star inside the black hole.

The fact that the photons become visibla at some distance from the black hole of M87 is prove that the emitted particles in the jets are invisible and are therefore dark energy.

Cheers Zwei Stein

Stein
2 / 5 (4) Apr 16, 2009
Hello yyz

Thank you for the information of the HST-1 observations.

Acording to the text I would conclude that x-ray and gamma ray photons are formed from dark energy without mitigating TeV electrons.

The UV and visible photons are indicating that in those regions electrons are indeed present.

The fact that all these photon emissions are in a straight line from the centre of galaxy M87 would indcate that there is a jet of dark energy particles eminating from the black hole which cause this sporatic occurance of photons and electrons at HST-1

Is is possible from the observation date to determin what spin the Xray photons have? I would expect them all to have the same spin. and in addition Y would expect the spin to be in the same direction as the acretion disc of M87. This outcome would confirm the connection of the jets and the X ray photons with the BH of M87. I would appreciate you comment on this very much.

Cheers Zwei Stein

Stein
2 / 5 (4) Apr 16, 2009
Hello omatumr

HST-1 activity is certainly not at odds with dark matter emissions of black hole jets. The oval shape of M87 gives us a slightly side on view which allows us to see that photons are not visible near the event horrizon and do not exist until the dark energy particles pair up into photons at some distance from the black hole.

The same may be observed at SAG A in our own galaxy where the hydrogen gas cloud is formed some distance from the black hole.

Cheers Zwei Stein
omatumr
1.7 / 5 (6) Apr 16, 2009
Sorry, Stein. Two of your assertions (See #1 and #2 below) are simply wrong.



Astronomy will continue to have "unexpected" findings that are "at odds" with the models of astronomers who refuse to read and study carefully the precise data that identify all sources of energy.



#1. Juan P. Madrid, author of the report, "HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF AN EXTRAORDINARY FLARE IN THE M87 JET" states in the abstract that the "outburst observed in HST-1 is at odds with the common definition of active galactic nucleus variability" [See: "The Astronomical Journal 137 (April 2009) page 3864].



#2. Precise rest masses of the 3,000 different types of nuclei [See: Nuclear Wallet Cards (National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY)] clearly show that n-n interactions are strongly repulsive and that neutron emission releases a greater fraction of rest mass as energy than nuclear fission or nuclear fusion [See, for example: "Attraction and repulsion of nucleons: Sources of stellar energy", Journal of Fusion Energy 19 (2001) 93-98; "Nuclear systematics: III. The source of solar luminosity", Journal of Radioanalytical & Nuclear Chemistry 252 (2002) 3-7; "Neutron repulsion confirmed as energy source", Journal of Fusion Energy 20 (2003) 197-201; "Composition of the solar interior: Information from isotope ratios", Proceedings of the 2002 SOHO/GONG Conference on Local and Global Helioseismology, ESA SP-517 (editor: Huguette Lacoste, 2003) pp. 345-348; "Isotopes tell origin and operation of the Sun," AIP Conference Proceedings, volume 822 (2006) pp. 206-225; "The Sun is a plasma diffuser that sorts atoms by mass," Physics of Atomic Nuclei 69 (2006) 1847-1856].



With kind regards,

Oliver K. Manuel

Emeritus Professor

Nuclear & Space Studies

http://myprofile....anuelo09
james11
1 / 5 (3) Apr 18, 2009
What if we are just far to small to realize anything? I mean the whole universe could be a puddle on a planet of a much larger universe of course im just using that as a reference but I think we need to invest money and all the brilliant minds out there into current problems for example we dont need to know if there is a habitable planet somewhere WHEN WE CANT EVEN REACH THE DAMN THING there are definitely unnecessary projects out there open your eyes there are homeless withering yet willing americans ON THE STREET while foreigners are driving in friggin 6 figure vehicles makes me sick but what do I know oh ya and IF THERE WERE NO MIDDLE CLASS THERE WOULD BE NO RICH PEOPLE SO COUNT YOUR BLESSINGS im sick of the middle class always gettin screwed please reply in any manner
james11
1 / 5 (1) Apr 18, 2009
If your rich u can afford to pay more taxes quit being stingy GOD FORBID IF U HAVE TO DOWNGRADE A LITTLE and the people that lost their lives and limbs didnt fight so the rich could screw everyone else over we need real sructure and discipline anyone agree???
Stein
2.6 / 5 (5) Apr 19, 2009
Hello Prof. Oliver K. Manuel

Thank you for your postings.

#1 I do not disagree with the statement in journal 137. I am simply stating that it is not at odds with jets emitting dark matter which is in the form of what I call Item particles which are smaller than photons and are undetectable until they pair up into photons.

#2 please do not confuse the atomic fission and the fusion processes in the sun with the processes in black holes or neutron stars.

The journal articles posted do not explain the process which occurs in black holes and neutron stars where fission and fusion of atoms does not occur.

Matter in such stars does not have atomic structures with electron orbital. The supernova explosion reduces all the atomic nuclei including electrons into a solid Nucleus the size of the star. Therefore

The processes occurring on the sun do not happen in black holes and neutron stars. The structure of all the elements which rely on orbital electrons are completely and utterly destroyed by the supernova explosion which results in the formation of the neutron star.

Neutron stars and black holes are gigantic nuclei without orbiting electrons.

I am honored to discuss physics with you, and since you are Prof Emeritus in nuclear physics, I would appreciate your comments to my posting on beta decay of nuclei dated 24 March 2009.

www.physorg.com/n...506.html

From the decay process proposed in that discussion you may find of particular interest that Neutrons contain an electron and a positron and therefore have no charge. If they have no charge they will not repel by coulomb forces. In fact the coulomb force holds the neutron together even stronger. The beta decay process which I have posted may give you insight into the structure of Neutron stars. You should however consider that the protons and electrons will be combined into neutrons in the supernova explosion. That is why the remnant stars are called neutron stars.

My information is primarily based on the study of the photon, subatomic nuclei and atoms. Astronomical aspects are only a necessary study to confirm the findings on a macro scale with respect to destruction, dark matter and creation of new matter and photons which closes the circle of the continuum.

I have read your Journal of Fusion Energy Vol 20 No 4. And make the following comments.

Z/A=0 Nuclei are as you say hypothetical and do not occur in this universe, not even in black holes and neutron stars.
The occurrence of peaks and valleys in M/A is because there is a pattern in the arrangement of the nuclei where both the protons and neutrons follow the same pattern.
There is no actual evidence that neutrons are repulsive, on the contrary there is substantial evidence that neutrons are required to hold the larger nuclei together.

Many neutrons stars have been observed and therefore exist.

Black hole have been observed to have irregular jet emissions even in the centre of old globular clusters.

I would suggest that the observed facts are more likely to be correct than a conclusion based on a hypothetical Z/A=0 nucleus which does not exist.


Cheers Zwei Stein
omatumr
1.6 / 5 (5) Apr 24, 2009
Sorry, Zwei, your comments are incomprehensible to me.

You describe "the processes in black holes or neutron stars" with all the certainty of one who has been there personally.

Yet you seem to have difficulty calculating the value of Z/A for a commonplace neutron:

[Z/A = 0/1 = 0]

So why do you write statements like these?

a.) "Z/A=0 Nuclei are as you say hypothetical and do not occur in this universe"

b.) "I would suggest that the observed facts are more likely to be correct than a conclusion based on a hypothetical Z/A=0 nucleus which does not exist."

Perhaps you are, like many other theoretical physicists and cosmologists, just too brilliant for a simple experimentalist like me to comprehend.
Stein
2.3 / 5 (3) May 06, 2009
Hello omatumr
OK there is the potential for a single neutron to exist for a short period of time. But a single neutron does not repell itself either so this case is not suitable for your argument.

a) Z/A=0 nuclei do not exist and even the single neutron cannot exist for very long due to decay. Neutrons can only exist in nuclei together with a protons. That means Z/A=0 will not exist.

b) this statement follows from a)

I thought that my explanations are as simple as one can make them. But at this stage I am not disclosing details of nuclei.

Cheers Zwei Stein
omatumr
1 / 5 (5) May 31, 2009
STUDY THE DATA

Zwei,

Study the data for the rest masses of the 3,000 types of atoms in the Nuclear Wallet Cards and learn.

Or ignore the data and continue to feel absolutely certain that you already know everything there is to know.

There is ONE real nuclide at Z/A = 1, the lightest isotope of Hydrogen, H-1.
Yes, the proton does NOT repel itself.

There is ONE real nuclide at Z/A =0, the neutron, n.
Yes, the neutron does NOT repel itself.

We can extrapolate the mass parabola data for heavier nuclides at A = 3, 4, 5, . . . . . ~275 and LEARN that the n-n and p-p interactions are repulsive in all these nuclides. Or we can ignore the data and insist that the n-n interaction cannot be repulsive.

The choice is yours. If you want to see the data: http://tinyurl.com/2otxps

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
http://www.omatumr.com
omatumr
1 / 5 (5) Jul 10, 2009
ENERGY SOURCE IN COMPACT OBJECTS AT GALACTIC CENTER

STUDY THE DATA



Zwei,



Study the data for the rest masses of the 3,000 types of atoms in the Nuclear Wallet Cards and learn.



Or ignore the data and continue to feel absolutely certain that you already know everything there is to know.



There is ONE real nuclide at Z/A = 1, the lightest isotope of Hydrogen, H-1.

Yes, the proton does NOT repel itself.



There is ONE real nuclide at Z/A =0, the neutron, n.

Yes, the neutron does NOT repel itself.



We can extrapolate the mass parabola data for heavier nuclides at A = 3, 4, 5, . . . . . ~275 and LEARN that the n-n and p-p interactions are repulsive in all these nuclides. Or we can ignore the data and insist that the n-n interaction cannot be repulsive.



The choice is yours. If you want to see the data: http://tinyurl.com/2otxps


You may also want to check out The Naked Scientists Forum, Science Photo of the Week

http://tinyurl.com/m34gs8

With kind regards,
Oliver