Secrets from within planets pave way for cleaner energy

Oct 23, 2008

Research that has provided a deeper understanding into the centre of planets could also provide the way forward in the world's quest for cleaner energy.

An international team of scientists, led by the University of Oxford, working alongside researchers at the Science and Technology Facilities Council's (STFC) Central Laser Facility, has gained a deeper insight into the hot, dense matter found at the centre of planets and as a result, has provided further understanding into controlled thermonuclear fusion. The full paper on this research has been published, 19 October, in the scientific journal, Nature Physics.

This deeper insight into planets could extend our comprehension of fusion energy – the same energy that powers the sun, and laser driven fusion as a future energy source. Fusion energy is widely considered an attractive, environmentally clean power source using sea water as its principal source of fuel, where no greenhouse gasses or long lived radioactive waste materials are produced.

Using STFC's Vulcan laser, the team has used an intense beam of X-rays to successfully identify and reproduce conditions found inside the core of planets, where solid matter has a temperature in excess of 50,000 degrees. The understanding of the complex state of matter in these extreme conditions represents one of the grand challenges of contemporary physics. The results from the Vulcan experiments are intended to improve our models of Jupiter and Saturn and to obtain better constraints on their composition and the age of the Solar System.

Using inelastic X-ray scattering measurements on a compressed lithium sample, it was shown how hot, dense matter states can be diagnosed and structural properties can be obtained. The thermodynamic properties – temperature, density and ionisation state, were all measured using a combination of non-invasive, high accuracy, X-ray diagnostics and advanced numerical simulations. The experiment has revealed that the matter at the centre of planets is in a state that is intermediate between a solid and a gas over lengths larger than 0.3 nanometres. To put this into context, 1 nanometre equates to less than 1/10000th of a human hair! Results showed that extreme matter behaves as a charged liquid, but at smaller distances it acts more like a gas.

Dr Gianluca Gregori, of the University of Oxford and STFC's Central Laser Facility said: "The study of warm dense matter states, in this experiment on lithium, shows practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, and it also represents significant understanding relating to astrophysical environments found in the core of planets and the crusts of old stars. This research therefore makes it not only possible to formulate more accurate models of planetary dynamics, but also to extend our comprehension of controlled thermonuclear fusion where such states of matter, that is liquid and gas, must be crossed to initiate fusion reactions. This work expands our knowledge of complex systems of particles where the laws that regulate their motion are both classical and quantum mechanical. "

Professor Mike Dunne, Director of the Central Laser Facility at STFC said: "Using high power lasers to find solutions to astrophysical issues is an area that has been highly active at STFC for some time. We are very excited that the Vulcan laser has contributed to such a significant piece of research. The use of extremely powerful lasers is proving to be a particularly effective approach to delivering long-term solutions for carbon-free energy."

Source: Science and Technology Facilities Council

Explore further: First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Could alien life cope with a hotter, brighter star?

Mar 24, 2014

The stars in the night sky shine in myriad hues and brightnesses—piercing blues, clean whites, smoldering crimsons. Every star has a different mass, the basic characteristic that determines its size, lifespan, ...

Could Jupiter become a star?

Feb 21, 2014

NASA's Galileo spacecraft arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, and proceeded to study the giant planet for almost 8 years. It sent back a tremendous amount of scientific information that revolutionized ...

Physics: A fundamental force for future security

Feb 13, 2014

What is matter? What is energy? What holds matter together? How do the various constituents of the universe interact at the most basic level? Where does the Earth sit in relation to the rest of the universe? ...

Could we harvest energy from a star?

Feb 04, 2014

Our civilization will need more power in the future. Count on it. The ways we use power today: for lighting, transportation, food distribution and even entertainment would have sounded hilarious and far fetched ...

Gaia's mission: solving the celestial puzzle

Dec 20, 2013

A space mission to create the largest, most-accurate, map of the Milky Way in three dimensions has been launched yesterday. Astronomers say the data gathered by the satellite will "revolutionise" our understanding of the ...

Recommended for you

First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives

Jul 25, 2014

While creating the first-ever images of explosives using an x-ray free electron laser in California, Los Alamos researchers and collaborators demonstrated a crucial diagnostic for studying how voids affect ...

New approach to form non-equilibrium structures

Jul 24, 2014

Although most natural and synthetic processes prefer to settle into equilibrium—a state of unchanging balance without potential or energy—it is within the realm of non-equilibrium conditions where new possibilities lie. ...

Nike krypton laser achieves spot in Guinness World Records

Jul 24, 2014

A set of experiments conducted on the Nike krypton fluoride (KrF) laser at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) nearly five years ago has, at long last, earned the coveted Guinness World Records title for achieving "Highest ...

User comments : 4

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

GrayMouser
5 / 5 (4) Oct 23, 2008
It's too bad they had to tie this research to AGW. It is important enough to stand on its' own.
gmurphy
1 / 5 (2) Oct 24, 2008
this research isn't tied to AGW. Your inherent prejudice towards climate science is making you see things
E_L_Earnhardt
2 / 5 (2) Oct 24, 2008
I just hope they don't start anything they can't STOP!
moebiex
not rated yet Oct 27, 2008
Here's a wild idea for the far future- Jupiter- a gas giant without sufficient mass to self-ignite- could there be some application of this line of research to lighting up an artificial star further out in our solar system dramatically increasing the habitat available to us. I guess we have to survive the insults on our current home before that becomes attractive but still...