Democracies with separation of powers less likely to stop using torture

Jul 16, 2008

A system of checks and balances in government is usually regarded as a good thing, except when it comes to the probability that a nation will stop its use of government-sanctioned torture, according to a Florida State University study.

As repugnant as torture is, the fact is most countries -- even those with democratic governments -- do it. FSU political science professor Will Moore and graduate student Courtenay Ryals wanted to find out what makes governments stop doing it. They presented their study, "What Stops the Torture?" at a recent meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.

The researchers were not surprised to learn that governments in which the citizens have a right to vote and freedom of expression are more likely to stop using torture. But it was another finding that, at first glance, seems to fly in the face of common sense: A system of checks and balances, an important dimension of liberal democracy, lessened the likelihood that a country terminated its use of torture.

Why? Because a separation of power often means it is harder to effect change.

"Checks on executive authorities are viewed as a positive attribute of liberal democracies," Moore said. "Unfortunately, they are also associated with the continuation of the status quo. So this liberal democratic institution that at first pass one might expect to be positively associated with the termination of the use of torture is actually a hurdle to be overcome."

That means the United States probably will not change anytime soon its interrogation methods and detention conditions, which Amnesty International has documented as violations of international laws against torture, Moore said. While Moore and Ryals' study did not specifically address the United States, its findings indicate that all of the various entities under the executive, judicial and legislative branches of government would have to agree to stop torture before policies would change. That hasn't happened.

The United States is not alone. An average of 78 percent of the governments in the world used torture against at least one person under their control in any given year during the last 25 years of the 20th century, according to Moore and Ryals. Those who used it in a given year faced a 93 percent chance of continuing the practice the next year.

"Politicians and pundits speak in highly moralistic language that suggests that because torture is abhorrent, it is abnormal and unusual," the researchers wrote. "While it is abhorrent, it is neither abnormal nor unusual. Human rights workers are very aware of this fact, but policy makers, politicians and reporters, to say nothing of the general public, in liberal democracies are considerably less informed."

No scientific research has been done to establish whether torture is more effective than other interrogation techniques, according to a 2007 study commissioned by the White House. Yet Moore and Ryals say that most police, military and intelligence officials believe that torture works most of the time, and so they keep doing it.

Torture is used primarily for three reasons: to collect national security intelligence; to secure confessions to prosecute criminal cases; and to gain social control over members of marginalized groups. Over the years, the use of torture for the second and third reasons has declined, while its use in efforts to collect national security intelligence has escalated, according to Moore and Ryals.

The way torture is administered also has evolved from scarring techniques to methods of inducing severe pain without leaving marks on the body. These techniques often involve use of water, electricity, stress and duress and "clean" beatings. These practices have proved to be easy, portable and, with little physical evidence, they have the added benefit of allowing government leaders to plausibly deny their existence.

However, leaders of countries where the people have freedom of expression and a right to vote are more likely to put programs in place to train prison guards and interrogators to avoid torture. A system of checks and balances can be a hindrance to these efforts, but it's not the only thing standing in the way of a liberal democracy abolishing torture. When faced with any kind of violent dissent, all bets are off.

"Even democracies engage in torture if they are faced with a violent threat," Moore said. "When national security is threatened, the temptation to torture trumps moral considerations in both democratic and authoritarian governments."

Source: Florida State University

Explore further: Can science eliminate extreme poverty?

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Can science eliminate extreme poverty?

18 hours ago

Science has often come to the rescue when it comes to the world's big problems, be it the Green Revolution that helped avoid mass starvation or the small pox vaccine that eradicated the disease. There is ...

Japan stem cell body splashes cash on luxury furniture

Apr 14, 2014

A publicly-funded research institute in Japan, already embattled after accusing one of its own stem cell scientists of faking data, has spent tens of thousands of dollars on designer Italian furniture, reportedly to use up ...

User comments : 11

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

superhuman
3.1 / 5 (9) Jul 16, 2008
I have an idea how the use of torture could be controlled - every security personnel who wants to use torture on a suspect should first voluntarily undergo the exact same torture himself and then he would only be allowed to administer no more then he was able to take on himself.

It would prevent unnecessary torture while still allowing it in EXTREME cases when national security is truly at stake.
p1ll
2.3 / 5 (8) Jul 17, 2008
who cares? (as long as I dont get tortured!)
Soylent
3.1 / 5 (7) Jul 17, 2008
I'd rather have the person ordering the torture face very serious criminal charges if the person being tortured is not found guilty of the suspected crimes using non-torture derived evidence.
kgbdrop
2 / 5 (5) Jul 17, 2008
every security personnel who wants to use torture on a suspect should first voluntarily undergo the exact same torture himself and then he would only be allowed to administer no more then he was able to take on himself.


http://www.humane...ontinueA
marjon
4.1 / 5 (8) Jul 17, 2008
"I have an idea how the use of torture could be controlled - every security personnel who wants to use torture on a suspect should first voluntarily undergo the exact same torture himself and then he would only be allowed to administer no more then he was able to take on himself."

Those who were using the water boarding technique DID have it administered on themselves.

Unlike any sound scientific study, terms must be defined. What is torture? A legal definition exists.
However some may claim playing Barry Manilo to prisoners is torture.
Is making a prisoner uncomfortable torture?

Define torture first and then determine what governments sanction that torture as policy.
COCO
1.6 / 5 (7) Jul 17, 2008
waterboard Rove and Cheney - just as part of the research BEFORE the Hague gets 'em!!
agg
2.3 / 5 (6) Jul 17, 2008
If you are an american and think this is an issue, you are a traitor. We need to expunge the weak and ineffective pansies from our nation, in particular the baby boomers who are so confused they can't get anything straight.
Minnaloushe
2.6 / 5 (5) Jul 17, 2008
This is just a transparent political hit piece by authors who have Marxist leanings anyway.
hypothesisnotscience
4.2 / 5 (5) Jul 17, 2008
"Democracies with separation of powers less likely to stop using torture"
Obviously, this article title is implying that other forms of government are more likely to stop using torture. Does it mean:
A)Democracies without separation of powers?
B)Totalitarian governments?
I can't think of too many Democracies without separation of powers. Russia might be one being that the separation of powers is a ruse.
Iran is another where separation of powers is a ruse.
China is of course totalitarian.
I don't know what this author is thinking .
Who does he have in mind when he implies that some other type of government is more likely to rid itself of torture? I need examples.
hypothesisnotscience
4.2 / 5 (5) Jul 17, 2008
Let me rewrite this piece:
I've entitled it Democracies with separation of powers are more likely to distance themselves from torture so long as they can depend on their larger stronger allies to do the world's nasty business for them while reaping the benefits of of information and they can appear righteous to their own people.
Zig158
5 / 5 (2) Jul 19, 2008
Physorg.com should try to avoid propaganda clocked as science.

This article brought to you by the makers of eugenics (TM)

More news stories

New clinical trial launched for advance lung cancer

Cancer Research UK is partnering with pharmaceutical companies AstraZeneca and Pfizer to create a pioneering clinical trial for patients with advanced lung cancer – marking a new era of research into personalised medicines ...

'Chief Yahoo' David Filo returns to board

Yahoo announced the nomination of three new board members, including company co-founder David Filo, who earned the nickname and formal job title of "Chief Yahoo."