USC awarded $3.9M for lab under the sea

Feb 22, 2008

Think of bacteria eating rock. Now think of bacteria eating rock below the ocean floor. How about experimenting on bacteria in that rock 15,000 feet underwater?

With a $3.9 million grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, USC researcher Katrina Edwards will lead a first-of-its-kind drilling expedition to study subseafloor life.

Recently discovered subseafloor microbes, which live on chemical reactions with rock and water, may affect ocean chemistry, the marine food web and global climate.

That’s because the entire volume of Earth’s oceans appears to circulate through the seabed every 200,000 years — lightning fast, by geologic standards.

“The ocean crust is more like fractured hard sponge cake than what we think of as truly solid,” Edwards explained.

Yet scientists know little about this “deep biosphere,” so Edwards and more than 30 colleagues have pushed for an observatory and at least a decade of research, which the Moore Foundation grant helps make possible.

“Dr. Edwards is pursuing one of the most fascinating problems in science,” said David Kingsbury, chief program officer of science at the Moore Foundation, based in San Francisco.

“With the recognition that the subseafloor ocean may teem with microbial life comes new, fundamental questions about the evolution and distribution of life and the operation of the carbon cycle,” he added.

The grant will fund complex engineering and instrumentation needed for long-term experiments at and below the seafloor. The drilling will occur under the auspices of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, an international marine research program funded by the National Science Foundation and Asian government agencies. Shallow drilling is expected to begin in 2009, and deeper drilling in 2010.

The undertaking will further bridge the earth and life sciences, a key goal in the emerging field of geobiology, described by Edwards as the co-evolution of Earth and life.

The deep biosphere is uniquely suited for a geobiological approach, Edwards said, since a proper understanding requires genomics, analysis of microbe-rock chemical interactions and a timescale in the millions of years.

Edwards and colleagues will drill at a site near Bermuda through sediments that have accumulated over 7 million years. In addition, they will drill into the basalt below and then conduct long-term experiments in both rock types.

The observatory is expected to uncover new details about the microbes — details impossible to obtain using only rock samples, lab cultures and other traditional methods.

In addition, the unique site — with its deep bed of sediments enclosed by basalt — will allow researchers to understand where the bacteria came from.

“The bacteria could have ‘swum’ up into the sediments from below or they could have floated down from above,” Edwards explained.

Genetic and metabolic pathway data will help the scientists understand how bacteria at different depths in the sediment are related to each other and to other known species.

This in turn could offer clues about how the bacteria evolved, perhaps shedding light on the origin of life.

Still, the scientists are unsure of what they will ultimately discover.

“No one has ever done a project like this before, so we really don’t know,” Edwards said.

Source: University of Southern California

Explore further: Quakes destroy or damage 83 houses in Philippines

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Wireless sensor transmits tumor pressure

6 hours ago

The interstitial pressure inside a tumor is often remarkably high compared to normal tissues and is thought to impede the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents as well as decrease the effectiveness of radiation ...

A nanosized hydrogen generator

7 hours ago

(Phys.org) —Researchers at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have created a small scale "hydrogen generator" that uses light and a two-dimensional graphene platform to boost ...

Tim Cook puts personal touch on iPhone 6 launch

7 hours ago

Apple chief Tim Cook personally kicked off sales of the iPhone 6, joining in "selfies" and shaking hands with customers Friday outside the company's store near his Silicon Valley home.

Kiribati leader visits Arctic on climate mission

7 hours ago

Fearing that his Pacific island nation could be swallowed by a rising ocean, the president of Kiribati says a visit to the melting Arctic has helped him appreciate the scale of the threat.

Recommended for you

Kiribati leader visits Arctic on climate mission

18 hours ago

Fearing that his Pacific island nation could be swallowed by a rising ocean, the president of Kiribati says a visit to the melting Arctic has helped him appreciate the scale of the threat.

NASA catches a weaker Edouard, headed toward Azores

Sep 19, 2014

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Atlantic Ocean and captured a picture of Tropical Storm Edouard as it continues to weaken. The National Hurricane Center expects Edouard to affect the western Azores ...

User comments : 0