Impact Craters in Tyrrhena Terra

Jul 31, 2007
Impact Craters in Tyrrhena Terra
The western part of the scene is dominated by a 35 kilometre-wide and approximately 1000 metre-deep impact crater with an extremely steep rim. The rim rises up to 400 metres above the surrounding plain. The crater is surrounded by multiple layers of material that was ejected during the impact. These so called ’ejecta blankets’ spread up to 50 kilometres around the crater. Their round, lobate appearance hints at possible ice- and water-rich subsurface material. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board ESA’s Mars Express obtained images of this region on 10 May 2007. This perspective view has been calculated from the Digital Terrain Model derived from the HRSC stereo channels. Credits: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin (G. Neukum)

The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board ESA’s Mars Express obtained images of the Tyrrhena Terra region on Mars.

On 10 May 2007, the pictures of the region located at 18° South and 99° East were taken during orbit number 4294 with a ground resolution of approximately 15 metres per pixel.

The Sun illuminates the scene from the south-west (top-left in the image).
Tyrrhena Terra is part of the ancient, heavily cratered southern Martian highlands. The region is located north of Hellas Planitia, the largest impact basin on Mars. The image scene exhibits three impact craters, located at the eastern border of Tyrrhena Terra with Hesperia Planum.

The western part of the scene is dominated by a 35 kilometre-wide and approximately 1000 metre-deep impact crater with an extremely steep rim. The rim rises up to 400 metres above the surrounding plains.

The crater is surrounded by multiple layers of material ejected during the impact. These so called ‘ejecta blankets’ spread up to a distance of 50 kilometres around the crater.

Their round, lobate appearance hints at possible ice- and water-rich subsurface material.

The raised feature in the centre of the crater most likely originated from the elastic rebound of compressed subsurface material after the impact. This feature is called 'central peak' or 'central uplift'. This is comparable to what happens when a drop of water hits a puddle.

Another, 18 kilometre-long and approximately 750 metre-deep impact crater, in all likelihood a ‘double impact crater’, is located south of the large crater.

These ‘double impact craters’ develop when two objects, possibly part of the same fragmented object, hit the surface almost simultaneously.

The impact that formed the larger northern crater, which displays an intact crater wall, occurred after the double-impact crater was formed. The ejecta from this later impact has reshaped the double-impact crater.

The northern part has been filled by ejecta and the material is present even at the bottom of the crater, in the direction of the point of impact (towards the larger, neighbouring crater).

The colour scenes have been derived from the three HRSC colour channels and the nadir channel. The perspective views have been calculated from the Digital Terrain Model derived from the HRSC stereo channels. The anaglyph images were calculated by putting together data from the nadir channel and one stereo channel. The black and white high-resolution images were derived from the nadir channel which provides the highest level of detail.

Source: ESA

Explore further: Image: The colors of sunset over the ISS

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

LROC images reveal intricate details of lunar impacts

Mar 18, 2015

The moon is pelted with cosmic debris all the time, but the largest explosion on its surface that we've actually recorded occurred two years ago today. On March 17, 2013, an object the size of a small boulder ...

Mars rover nearing marathon achievement

Feb 12, 2015

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is nearing a location on Mars at which its driving distance will surpass the length of a marathon race.

Recommended for you

Scuttling satellites to save space

4 minutes ago

It takes a lot of ingenuity – not to mention a massive quantity of sheer force – to get satellites into orbit. Now space engineers are applying comparable ingenuity to the challenge of getting their missions ...

A new look at the sun's magnetic field

14 minutes ago

Sunspots, bursts of radiation and violent eruptions are signs that our sun is permanently active. Researchers have long known that this activity varies in a cycle of around eleven years' duration. Even if ...

NASA asteroid hunter spacecraft data available to public

50 minutes ago

Millions of images of celestial objects, including asteroids, observed by NASA's Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) spacecraft now are available online to the public. The data ...

Russian, American ready for a year in space

12 hours ago

The Russian astronaut heading off for a year in space says he'll miss the natural landscapes on Earth. His American counterpart jokes he won't miss his twin brother.

Image: The colors of sunset over the ISS

Mar 26, 2015

ESA astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti took these images from the International Space Station during her six-month mission. The Progress cargo ship and Soyuz crew spacecraft reflect sunlight as our star sets ...

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.