Dawn mission discovers hydrogen on giant asteroid Vesta (w/ Video)

Sep 20, 2012
This artist's concept shows NASA's Dawn spacecraft orbiting the giant asteroid Vesta. The depiction of Vesta is based on images obtained by Dawn's framing cameras. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

(Phys.org)—The first measurements of the elemental composition of the surface of the giant asteroid Vesta indicate that hydrogen was brought to the body by impactors, research by a team led by Planetary Science Institute Senior Scientist Thomas H. Prettyman has shown.

Using data collected by the NASA Dawn mission's spacecraft's gamma ray and instrument—GRaND—as it circled the giant asteroid, researchers also confirmed the of the surface of Vesta matches meteorites found on Earth believed to have originated from Vesta.

The hydrogen content of Vesta's regolith, or materials, is consistent with delivery of hydrogen-bearing, carbonaceous chondrite materials to Vesta, Prettyman and co-authors report in a paper titled "Elemental Mapping by Dawn Reveals Exogenic H in Vesta's Regolith" that appears in Science.

This perspective view of Marcia crater on the giant asteroid Vesta shows the most spectacularly preserved example of "pitted terrain," an unexpected discovery in data returned by NASA's Dawn mission. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA/JHUAPL

The highest concentrations of hydrogen were found in equatorial regions, where water ice is not stable. The lowest amounts were found within the giant, south-polar Rheasilvia . The amounts of hydrogen and its association globally with broad, low albedo—low reflective—regions on Vesta indicate the infall of carbonaceous chondrites bearing hydrated minerals as the likely origin. A companion paper by Brett Denevi of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory shows pitted regions within young craters that formed due to impacts into volatile-rich material.

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The animation from NASA's Dawn mission shows abundances of hydrogen in a wide swath around the equator of the giant asteroid Vesta. Credit: NASA

"Where did the hydrogen from Vesta's surface come from? We ruled out the wind of charged hydrogen particles streaming off the Sun as a source, as well as water ice within the top few feet of Vesta's surface," Prettyman said. "The hydrated minerals appear to be delivered by carbon-rich that collided with Vesta at speeds slow enough to preserve their volatile content."

This map from NASA's Dawn mission shows the global distribution of hydrogen on the surface of the giant asteroid Vesta. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/PSI/MPS/DLR/IDA

GRaND's first elemental measurements of Vesta's surface showed the composition matches howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites believed to have been blasted off of Vesta, Prettyman said.

"The Vesta-HED connection was established long ago by comparing the spectrum of reflected light for the HED meteorites with telescopic measurements of Vesta," he said. "GRaND confirms this by showing that the abundances of iron and silicon are consistent with HEDs.

Dawn orbited within 210 kilometers of Vesta, allowing GRaND a unique opportunity to analyze the asteroid. "From a broader perspective, we are reporting the first direct measurements of Vesta's elemental composition, which can only be accomplished by getting very close to Vesta," Prettyman said. "It is unlikely these measurements will be repeated any time soon."

This perspective view of Cornelia crater on the giant asteroid Vesta shows an example of "pitted terrain," an unexpected discovery in data returned by NASA's Dawn mission. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA/JHUAPL

Dawn left Vesta's orbit Sept. 4 and is making its way to a rendezvous with the dwarf planet Ceres in early 2015.

The data acquired by GRaND are available to the public through the NASA Planetary Data System.

Explore further: NASA asteroid defense program falls short: audit

More information: www.sciencemag.org/content/ear… 9/19/science.1225354

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Standing Bear
1 / 5 (1) Sep 21, 2012
All this made possible by NOT using chemical rockets, but the better space propulsion alternative, electric propulsion. It may thrust slow, but it thrusts for a looooooonnng loooooooonnng time. It is able to achieve speeds chemical dinosaurs only dream about and fail to reach, no matter how much wishful thinking propaganda from the oil industry. Dawn has triple redundancy in its thruster systems, and solar powers it all. For deeper space missions, nuclear systems, like those aboard the new Mars 'Curiosity' rover, will have to be used due to the drop off in solar power production efficiency as an increasing cubic function of distance from the central star.
RadiantThoughts
1 / 5 (1) Sep 21, 2012
All this made possible by NOT using chemical rockets, but the better space propulsion alternative, electric propulsion. It may thrust slow, but it thrusts for a looooooonnng loooooooonnng time. It is able to achieve speeds chemical dinosaurs only dream about and fail to reach, no matter how much wishful thinking propaganda from the oil industry. Dawn has triple redundancy in its thruster systems, and solar powers it all. For deeper space missions, nuclear systems, like those aboard the new Mars 'Curiosity' rover, will have to be used due to the drop off in solar power production efficiency as an increasing cubic function of distance from the central star.


The ionization drive used on Dawn still requires a propellant in the form of xenon. Simply having electricity is insufficient but would be great. The only technology I can think of would be that EMdrive the Chinese are making but as far as I know its not been shown to be real science.
GSwift7
1 / 5 (1) Sep 21, 2012
All this made possible by NOT using chemical rockets, but the better space propulsion alternative, electric propulsion. It may thrust slow, but it thrusts for a looooooonnng loooooooonnng time. It is able to achieve speeds chemical dinosaurs only dream about


Depends on what your mission needs are. If you need high delta V at any point in the mission, then you need chemical rockets. As long as you have a chemical rocket, the ion drive may be redundant. The two are not really interchangeable options. You can't do the same missions with each. The ion drive enables new missions, but does not obsolete the chemical rocket.

no matter how much wishful thinking propaganda from the oil industry


Oil companies don't care about rocket fuel. Check out the wiki page on rocket propellants. They are made from all sorts of things and very little of it is from oil. Try Dupont, not Exxon.

http://en.wikiped...ket_fuel
GSwift7
1 / 5 (1) Sep 21, 2012
For deeper space missions, nuclear systems, like those aboard the new Mars 'Curiosity' rover, will have to be used due to the drop off in solar power production efficiency as an increasing cubic function of distance from the central star


That's wrong too. An RTG or Radioactive Thermal Generator isn't a nuclear device. It's just a heat engine using radioactive decay to generate the heat. They have very limited lifespans, since they decay whether you are using the power or not.

Next, the power available from a solar panel isn't a cubic function of distance, it is a squared relationship. Try the following web site to learn more. There's a nice chart at the very bottom:

http://pvcdrom.pv...PACE.HTM

Note the values for the planets on the chart. Uranus 2800:4 and Saturn 1400:15 (rounded). See, it's a squared relationship.