Ancient climate secrets raised from ocean depths

February 1, 2008

Scientists aboard the research vessel, Southern Surveyor, return to Hobart today with a collection of coral samples and photographs taken in the Southern Ocean at greater depths than ever before.

Using a remotely operated submersible vehicle the international research team captured images of life found on deep-sea pinnacles and valleys up to three kilometres beneath the Ocean’s surface.

During a three-week voyage, scientists from CSIRO’s Wealth from Oceans National Research Flagship and the US collaborated to retrieve examples of live and fossilised deep-ocean corals from a depth of 1650 metres near the Tasman Fracture Zone, south-east of Tasmania.

“These corals are evidence of an extinct coral reef,” says the voyage’s Chief Scientist, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research’s Dr Ron Thresher. “Our sampling came up with some very old fossil corals of the type we are now seeing live and forming extensive reefs at depths of 800-1300 metres. This suggests that the reef extended much deeper in the past, but how long ago or why it died out, we don't know yet,” he says.

The composition of deep-sea corals is used to determine past ocean conditions, such as temperature, salinity and the mixing of surface and deep-water layers, over tens to hundreds of thousands of years.

Dr Thresher says over the coming year the samples will be examined to determine when these newly discovered reefs existed and if their extinction can be related to long-term climate patterns.

The findings will provide ancient climate data that contribute to models of regional and global climate change, based on historical circulation patterns in the Southern Ocean.

He says that at times the submersible vehicle – or Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE), on loan from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) – was pushed off course while exploring the extreme depths and, in two cases, had its forward progress stopped altogether. Such movements enabled researchers to identify previously unknown and unexpectedly strong, deep currents.

“The voyage was a success despite some of the roughest conditions ever experienced by the team, particularly in deploying the ABE,” Dr Thresher says.

Source: CSIRO Australia

Explore further: How fossil corals can shed light on the Earth's past climate

Related Stories

How fossil corals can shed light on the Earth's past climate

September 24, 2015

In a paper published today in Science, researchers from the University of Bristol describe how they used radiocarbon measured in deep-sea fossil corals to shed light on carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during the Earth's last ...

The Southwest Pacific reveals some of its secrets

September 15, 2015

The Southwest Pacific ocean and the strong currents that travel through it play a major role in the world's climate. Running since 2008, the SPICE research program has allowed a great many in situ observations to be collected ...

A fish too deep for science

July 17, 2015

Drs. Carole Baldwin and Ross Robertson from the Smithsonian Institution discovered a new small goby fish that differs from its relatives not only in its size and colors, but also in the depth of its habitat (70-80 m) in the ...

Researchers investigate increased ocean acidification

August 3, 2015

The primary cause of global ocean acidification is the oceanic absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere. Although this absorption helps to mitigate some of the effects of anthropogenic climate change, it has resulted in a reduction ...

Marine protected areas conserve Mediterranean red coral

May 11, 2010

A team of Spanish and French researchers has undertaken a pioneer analysis of red coral populations in the oldest Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in the Mediterranean and the impact that fishing activity has had. Results show ...

Recommended for you

History shows more big wildfires likely as climate warms

October 5, 2015

The history of wildfires over the past 2,000 years in a northern Colorado mountain range indicates that large fires will continue to increase as a result of a warming climate, according to new study led by a University of ...

Predictable ecosystems may be more fragile

October 7, 2015

When it comes to using our natural resources, human beings want to know what we're going to get. We expect clean water every time we turn on the tap; beaches free of algae and bacteria; and robust harvests of crops, fish ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.