Cell biology (formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, "contain") is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cell biology research encompasses both the great diversity of single-celled organisms like bacteria and protozoa, as well as the many specialized cells in multicellular organisms such as humans. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences. Appreciating the similarities and differences between cell types is particularly important to the fields of cell and molecular biology as well as to biomedical fields such as cancer research and developmental biology. These fundamental similarities and differences provide a unifying theme, sometimes allowing the principles learned from studying one cell type to be extrapolated and generalized to other cell types. Therefore, research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. Each type of protein is usually
Architecture of protein complex hints at its function in chromosome segregation
Whitehead Institute researchers have revealed the architecture of a protein complex that plays a foundational role in the machine that directs chromosome segregation during cell division.
Grabbing a parasite by the tail: Team solves 'jumping gene' mystery
Deep within your DNA, a tiny parasite lurks, waiting to pounce from its perch and land in the middle of an unsuspecting healthy gene. If it succeeds, it can make you sick.
Packaging and unpacking of the genome
DNA represents a dynamic form of information, balancing efficient storage and access requirements. Packaging approximately 1.8m of DNA into something as small as a cell nucleus is no mean feat, but unpacking it again to access ...
Protein complex links cellular metabolism to gene expression
Researchers in the Workman Lab at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have identified a link between cellular metabolism and gene expression, one with potentially far-reaching implications for cancer risk prediction ...
Study of basic cell processes may inform health, synthetic biology efforts
Everyone who has played in a band or orchestra knows that playing in time creates music, while playing out of time creates cacophony. In an orchestra, each player may be out of tune when warming up, but eventually, all players ...
Too many targets: Scientists create model to analyze ceRNA regulation, validate results with synthetic gene circuits
Physiologists uncover a new code at the heart of biology
UT Southwestern physiologists trying to understand the genetic code have found a previously unknown code that helps explain which protein should be created to form a particular type of cell.
The logistics on the drosophila X chromosome
If we place an order in an online store we are often thrilled how fast the parcel is delivered to our doorstep. This is possible because logistic companies have established a very reliable and efficient system to distribute ...
Scientists identify protein at death's door of cells
A protein embedded in the surface of mitochondria - the energy-producing batteries of living cells - opens the door to cell death, causing cells to experience severe power failures, according to new work by researchers at ...
Scientists discover a protein that silences the biological clock
A new study led by UC Santa Cruz researchers has found that a protein associated with cancer cells is a powerful suppressor of the biological clock that drives the daily ("circadian") rhythms of cells throughout the body. ...