Tweaking carotenoid genes helps tomatoes bring their A-game

Cooked, fresh, sun-dried, or juiced, whichever way you prefer them, tomatoes are arguably one of the most versatile fruits on the planet—and yes, despite mainly being used in savory dishes, tomatoes really are a fruit.

Grafting with epigenetically-modified rootstock yields surprise

Novel grafted plants—consisting of rootstock epigenetically modified to "believe" it has been under stress—joined to an unmodified scion, or above-ground shoot, give rise to progeny that are more vigorous, productive ...

Scientists create virus-resistant tomato plants

Researchers of Valencia's Polytechnic University (UPV) and the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) have used tools that regulate gene expression in order to produce tomato plants that are resistant to the spotted wilt ...

France keeps eyes peeled for ruinous tomato virus

France's agriculture ministry said Thursday that it was increasing surveillance of fields to stave off a ruinous virus affecting tomatoes that has already been found in neighbouring countries.

Solving the riddle of strigolactone biosynthesis in plants

Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of chemical compounds found in plants that have roles as plant hormones and rhizosphere signaling molecules. They regulate plant architecture and promote germination of root parasitic weeds ...

Wild tomatoes resist devastating bacterial canker

Many New York tomato growers are familiar with the scourge of bacterial canker—the wilted leaves and blistered fruit that can spoil an entire season's planting. For those whose livelihoods depend on tomatoes, this pathogen—Clavibacter ...

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Tomato

Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum

The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, syn. Lycopersicon lycopersicum & Lycopersicon esculentum) is a herbaceous, usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, as are its close cousins potatoes, chili peppers, tobacco, eggplant and the poisonous belladonna. It is a perennial, often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. Typically reaching to 1–3 metres (3–10 ft) in height, it has a weak, woody stem that often vines over other plants. The leaves are 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long, odd pinnate, with 5–9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8 centimetres (3 in) long, with a serrated margin; both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. The flowers are 1–2 centimetres (0.4–0.8 in) across, yellow, with five pointed lobes on the corolla; they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together.

The tomato is native to South America. Genetic evidence shows that the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit with a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. These early Solanums diversified into the dozen or so species of tomato recognized today. One species, Solanum lycopersicum, was transported to Mexico where it was grown and consumed by prehistoric humans. The exact date of domestication is not known. Evidence supports the theory the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit, ancestor of L. cerasiforme,[citation needed] grown by the Aztecs of Central Mexico who called it xitomatl (pronounced [ʃiːˈtomatɬ]), meaning plump thing with a navel, and later called tomatl by other Mesoamerican peoples. Aztec writings mention tomatoes were prepared with peppers, corn and salt, likely to be the original salsa recipe.

Many historians[who?] believe that the Spanish explorer Cortez may have been the first to transfer the small yellow tomato to Europe after he captured the Aztec city of Tenochtítlan, now Mexico City in 1521. Yet others[who?] believe Christopher Columbus, an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy, was the first European to take back the tomato, earlier in 1493. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli, an Italian physician and botanist, who named it pomo d’oro, golden apple.

The word tomato comes from a word in the Nahuatl language, tomatl. The specific name, lycopersicum, means "wolf-peach".

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA