Related topics: plants · climate change · nitrogen · atmosphere · carbon

Phosphate shortage: The dwindling resource required to grow food

By 2030, the world's population is projected to be about 8.5 billion people. Global food security is a major concern for governments—zero hunger is the second most important of the United Nations Sustainable Development ...

New tool supports future of organic farming

A collaboration with Japanese manufacturer Yanmar, the Kyoto Institute of Technology, the SUGAR Network, and Design Factory Melbourne (DFM) has created a time-saving product for organic farmers.

Scientists make fundamental discovery to creating better crops

A team of scientists led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have discovered the specific gene that controls an important symbiotic relationship between plants and soil fungi, and successfully facilitated ...

Helping robots to build new antibiotics

A team from The University of Manchester have engineered a common gut bacterium to produce a new class of antibiotics by using robotics. These antibiotics, known as class II polyketides, are also naturally produced by soil ...

What Artemis will teach us about living, working on the moon

Humans have not had much of an opportunity to work on the moon. The 12 Apollo astronauts who got to explore its surface clocked in 80 hours in total of discovery time. From their brief encounters, and from extensive analyses ...

5000 tons of plastic released into the environment every year

Overall, around 5,120 tons of the seven types of plastic are discharged into the environment each year. This is around 0.7% of the total amount of the seven plastics consumed in Switzerland each year (amounting to a total ...

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Soil

Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics. It is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical and environmental processes that include weathering and erosion. Soil differs from its parent rock due to interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the biosphere. It is a mixture of mineral and organic constituents that are in solid, gaseous and aqueous states. Soil particles pack loosely, forming a soil structure filled with pore spaces. These pores contain sol solution (liquid) and air (gas). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three state system. Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm³. Soil is also known as earth: it is the substance from which our planet takes its name. Little of the soil composition of planet Earth is older than Tertiary and most no older than Pleistocene. In engineering, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material.

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