Mapping nucleation kinetics with nanometer resolution

Nucleation is the formation of a new condensed phase from a fluid phase via self-assembly. This process is critical to many natural systems and technical applications including the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and advanced ...

When kinetics and thermodynamics should play together

The formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in water has ramifications for everything from food and energy production to human health and the availability of drinkable water. But in the context of today's environment, simply ...

Atomic motion captured in 4-D for the first time

Everyday transitions from one state of matter to another—such as freezing, melting or evaporation—start with a process called "nucleation," in which tiny clusters of atoms or molecules (called "nuclei") begin to coalesce. ...

New record on the growth of graphene single crystals

Graphene, especially the graphene single crystal, is a star material for future photonics and electronics due to its unique properties, such as giant intrinsic charge carrier mobility, record thermal conductivity, super stiffness ...

Researchers unveil effects of dust particles on cloud properties

An international team led by Japanese scientists has generated significant findings that highlight the impact of high-latitude dust on the conversion of water droplets in clouds into ice—or glaciation—within low-level ...

Nucleation of liquids visualised

Researchers from the UvA's Institute of Physics (IoP) and Leiden University have found a new way to visualise and measure the nucleation process responsible for the formation of liquid droplets in vapour. Their findings, ...

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Nucleation

Nucleation is the extremely localized budding of a distinct thermodynamic phase. Some examples of phases that may form by way of nucleation in liquids are gaseous bubbles, crystals or glassy regions. Creation of liquid droplets in saturated vapor is also characterized by nucleation (see Cloud condensation nuclei). Nucleation of crystalline, amorphous and even vacancy clusters solid materials is also important, for example to the semiconductor industry. Most nucleation processes are physical, rather than chemical, but a few exceptions do exist (e.g. electrochemical nucleation). A good example would be the famous Diet Coke and Mentos eruption. Nucleation normally occurs at nucleation sites on surfaces contacting the liquid or vapor. Suspended particles or minute bubbles also provide nucleation sites. This is called heterogeneous nucleation. Nucleation without preferential nucleation sites is homogeneous nucleation. Homogeneous nucleation occurs spontaneously and randomly, but it requires superheating or supercooling of the medium. Nucleation is involved in such processes as cloud seeding and in instruments such as the bubble chamber and the cloud chamber.

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