Related topics: genes · genome · fruit flies · yeast

Unraveling gene expression

The DNA of a single cell is two to three meters long end-to-end. To fit in the nucleus and function correctly, DNA is packaged around specialized proteins. These DNA-protein complexes are called nucleosomes, and they are ...

Antibiotics: New substances break bacterial resistance

Researchers at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have developed a promising new class of active ingredients against resistant bacteria. In initial tests in cell cultures and insects, the substances were ...

Fish simulations provide new insights into energy costs of swimming

A new computational analysis suggests that maximizing swimming speeds while minimizing energy costs depends on an optimal balance between a fish's muscle dynamics and the way its size, shape, and swimming motion affect its ...

How cells protect themselves from mitochondrial defects

Cells need powerhouses known as mitochondria to utilize the energy stored in our food. Most of the proteins required for this powerhouse function are encoded in the nucleus and transported into the mitochondria after they ...

Microscopic spines connect worm neurons

Dendritic "spines"—small protrusions on the receiving side of the connection (synapse) between two nerve cells—are recognized as key functional components of neuronal circuits in mammals. The shapes and numbers of spines ...

Insect or virus? How plants know

Most plants have plenty of enemies, from insects and other grazing creatures to various diseases, droughts and many other stressors.

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Model organism

A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. In particular, model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical. This strategy is made possible by the common descent of all living organisms, and the conservation of metabolic and developmental pathways and genetic material over the course of evolution. Studying model organisms can be informative, but care must be taken when generalizing from one organism to another.

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