Sierra Nevada snowpack hits highest level in nearly 30 years

The statewide Sierra Nevada snowpack—the source of nearly one-third of California's water supply—is at its highest level since 1995, boosting hopes that an end to the drought is near, but also raising concerns that a ...

The science behind ice-melt products

As picturesque as winter weather can be, snowy scenes often present a less desirable, slippery companion: ice. It coats our roadways, clings to windshields and serves as a general hurdle in daily life during the coldest months ...


Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase change of a substance from a solid to a liquid. The internal energy of a substance is increased, typically by the application of heat or pressure, resulting in a rise of its temperature to the melting point, at which the rigid ordering of molecular entities in the solid breaks down to a less-ordered state and the solid liquefies. An object that has melted completely is molten. Substances in the molten state generally have reduced viscosity with elevated temperature; an exception to this maxim is the element sulfur, whose viscosity increases with higher temperatures in its molten state.

Some organic compounds melt through mesophases, states of partial order between solid and liquid.

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