Related topics: volcano

NASA selects new instruments for priority Artemis science on moon

Adding to the growing list of commercial deliveries slated to explore more of the moon than ever before under Artemis, NASA has selected two new science instrument suites, including one that will study the mysterious Gruithuisen ...

How the world's most active volcano was born

A new international study led by Monash University has described for the first time what may have triggered the birth of Kilauea, one of the most active volcanoes in Hawaii.

Why can't we predict volcanic eruptions like we do hurricanes?

While the Cumbre Vieja eruption in La Palma, Spain, is said to have cost EUR 843 million, thankfully, only one casualty was reported. While the emergency response is celebrated, the event has sparked questions about how much ...

Failed eruptions are at the origin of copper deposits

Copper is one of the most widely used metals on the planet today due to its electrical and thermal conduction properties. The greatest natural resources of this metal are the so-called "porphyry" deposits that come from ...

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Magma

Magma is molten rock that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and may also exist on other terrestrial planets. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals and gas bubbles. Magma often collects in a magma chamber inside a volcano. Magma is capable of intrusion into adjacent rocks, extrusion onto the surface as lava, and explosive ejection as tephra to form pyroclastic rock.

Magma is a complex high-temperature fluid substance. Temperatures of most magmas are in the range 700°C to 1300°C (or 1292°F to 2372°F), but very rare carbonatite melts may be as cool as 600°C, and komatiite melts may have been as hot as 1600°C. Most are silicate solutions.

Environments of magma formation and compositions are commonly correlated. Environments include subduction zones, continental rift zones, mid-oceanic ridges, and hotspots, some of which are interpreted as mantle plumes. Despite being found in such widespread locales, the bulk of the Earth's crust and mantle is not molten. Rather, most of the Earth takes the form of a rheid, a form of solid that can move or deform under pressure. Magma, as liquid, preferentially forms in high temperature, low pressure environments within several kilometers of the Earth's surface.

Magma compositions may evolve after formation by fractional crystallization, contamination, and magma mixing. By definition, all igneous rock is formed from magma.

While the study of magma has historically relied on observing magma in the form of lava outflows, magma was discovered in situ for the first time in 2008.

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