Related topics: electrons

Integrating hot cores and cool edges in fusion reactors

Future fusion reactors have a conundrum: maintain a plasma core that is hotter than the surface of the sun without melting the walls that contain the plasma. Fusion scientists refer to this challenge as "core-edge integration." ...

Three-channel Kondo effect discovered in cubic holmium compound

A scientist from Tokyo Metropolitan University has applied numerical methods to capture the hallmarks of a quantum phenomenon known as the three-channel Kondo effect in an f-electron system for the first time. Professor Takashi ...

Blood of drug users can reveal origin of drug

The opioid fentanyl is not only used in medical practice as a painkiller, but is also a popular recreational drug. In the United States in particular, fentanyl plays an important role in the opioid crisis that claims many ...

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Impurity

Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound.

Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product. During production, impurities may be purposely, accidentally, inevitably, or incidentally added into the substance.

The level of impurities in a material are generally defined in relative terms. Standards have been established by various organizations that attempt to define the permitted levels of various impurities in a manufactured product. Strictly speaking, then, a material's level of purity can only be stated as being more or less pure than some other material.

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