Related topics: electrons

World's first experimental observation of a Kondo cloud

Physicists have been trying to observe the Kondo cloud quantum phenomenon for many decades. An international research team including a scientist from City University of Hong Kong (CityU) has recently developed a novel device ...

Mathematics reveals new insights into Marangoni flows

The Marangoni effect is a popular physics experiment. It is produced when an interface between water and air is heated in just one spot. Since this heat will radiate outwards, a temperature gradient is produced on the surface, ...

Corkscrew photons may leave behind a spontaneous twist

Everything radiates. Whether it's a car door, a pair of shoes or the cover of a book, anything hotter than absolute zero (i.e., pretty much everything) is constantly shedding radiation in the form of photons, the quantum ...

Semimetals are high conductors

Researchers in China and at UC Davis have measured high conductivity in very thin layers of niobium arsenide, a type of material called a Weyl semimetal. The material has about three times the conductivity of copper at room ...

Not all ions in tokamaks go with the flow

For the first time, scientists are measuring the rotation of the main (deuterium) plasma in the edge region of a fusion device. New spectroscopic measurements combined with state-of-the-art spectroscopic simulation made this ...

Transparent electronics research gains momentum

Transparent electronics are the future, according to researchers including José A. Flores-Livas and Miglė Graužinytė from the research group headed by Stefan Goedecker, Professor of Computational Physics at the University ...

High performance graphene-based catalysts

NUS scientists have developed design guidelines that increase the catalytic effectiveness of graphene-based solid state catalysts for potential industry applications.

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Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound.

Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product. During production, impurities may be purposely, accidentally, inevitably, or incidentally added into the substance.

The level of impurities in a material are generally defined in relative terms. Standards have been established by various organizations that attempt to define the permitted levels of various impurities in a manufactured product. Strictly speaking, then, a material's level of purity can only be stated as being more or less pure than some other material.

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