Related topics: electrons

Blood of drug users can reveal origin of drug

The opioid fentanyl is not only used in medical practice as a painkiller, but is also a popular recreational drug. In the United States in particular, fentanyl plays an important role in the opioid crisis that claims many ...

Observing the birth of a quasiparticle

Over the past decades, physicists worldwide have been trying to gain a better understanding of non-equilibrium dynamics in quantum many-body systems. Some studies investigated what are known as quasiparticles, disturbances ...

Quantum insulators create multilane highways for electrons

New energy-efficient electronic devices may be possible thanks to research that demonstrates the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect—where an electrical current does not lose energy as it flows along the edges of the material—over ...

Impurities enhance polymer LED efficiencies

Molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the mysteriously high efficiency of polymer LEDs arises from interactions between triplet excitons in their polymer chains, and unpaired electrons in their molecular impurities.

New approach to exotic quantum matter

In a three-dimensional world, all particles must be either fermions or bosons, but in fewer dimensions, the existence of particles known as anyons, which have intermediate quantum statistics, is possible. Such fascinating ...

Stresses and flows in ultra-cold superfluids

Superfluids, which form only at temperatures close to absolute zero, have unique and in some ways bizarre mechanical properties. Yvan Buggy of the Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, ...

World's first experimental observation of a Kondo cloud

Physicists have been trying to observe the Kondo cloud quantum phenomenon for many decades. An international research team has recently developed a novel device that successfully measures the length of the Kondo cloud and ...

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Impurity

Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound.

Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product. During production, impurities may be purposely, accidentally, inevitably, or incidentally added into the substance.

The level of impurities in a material are generally defined in relative terms. Standards have been established by various organizations that attempt to define the permitted levels of various impurities in a manufactured product. Strictly speaking, then, a material's level of purity can only be stated as being more or less pure than some other material.

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