Domestic violence goes unrecognized in faith communities

Australians who are frequently involved in religion and who identify as religious are less likely to acknowledge domestic violence is an issue within their faith community, despite acknowledging it as a national issue, a ...

Can we perceive gender from children's voices?

The perception of gender in children's voices is of special interest to researchers, because voices of young boys and girls are very similar before the age of puberty. Adult male and female voices are often quite different ...

Moonshot: Japan recruits first new astronauts in 13 years

It's one small step for Japan, but one giant opportunity for would-be space cadets: the country is recruiting new astronauts for the first time in over a decade and applicants no longer have to hold a science degree.

How to attract men into jobs performed predominantly by women

Across OECD countries, historically female-dominated occupations in healthcare, education and social services have been growing and are expected to grow even more in the future. In the US, nurse practitioners, occupational ...

Improving safety for women and girls on public transport

A major collaborative research project between La Trobe University, Monash University's XYX Lab, and RMIT has today released a series of gender-sensitive Toolkits to improve the safety of women and girls on public transport.

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Gender

Gender comprises a range of differences between men and women, extending from the biological to the social. At the biological level, men and women are typically distinguished by the presence of a Y-chromosome in male cells, and its absence in female cells. At the social level, however, there is debate regarding the extent to which the various biological differences necessitate differences in social gender roles and gender identity, which has been defined as "an individual's self-conception as being male or female, as distinguished from actual biological sex."

The word "gender" has several definitions. Colloquially, it is used interchangeably with "sex" to denote the condition of being male or female, but in the social sciences it refers to specifically social differences, such as but not limited to gender identity. More recently, it has been equated with "sexual orientation" and "identity" (especially LGBT sexuality).[citation needed] People whose gender identity feels incongruent with their biological sex may refer to themselves as "intergender".

Many languages have a system of grammatical gender, a type of noun class system—nouns may be classified as masculine or feminine (for example Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and French) and may also have a neuter grammatical gender (for example Sanskrit, German, Polish, and the Scandinavian languages). In such languages, this is essentially a convention, which may have little or no connection to the meaning of the words. Likewise, a wide variety of phenomena have characteristics termed gender, by analogy with male and female bodies (such as the gender of connectors and fasteners) or due to societal norms.

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