Workplace automation has sizeable negative impact on pay gap

For every 10 percent increase in the number of robots in the workplace, researchers found a 1.8 percent increase in the conditional pay gap between male and female employees, though both men and women did see their pay increase ...

Enforcing gender quotas increases boardroom diversity and quality

An organization that is required by national law to have significant female representation on its board of directors sees higher diversity and skills than those in countries that simply advise on quotas, according to research ...

Cowbirds change their eggs' sex ratio based on breeding time

Brown-headed cowbirds show a bias in the sex ratio of their offspring depending on the time of the breeding season, researchers report in a new study. More female than male offspring hatch early in the breeding season in ...

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Female

Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces mobile ova (egg cells). The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male. A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male (an exception is parthenogenesis). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

There is no single genetic mechanism behind sex differences in different species and the existence of two sexes seems to have evolved multiple times independently in different evolutionary lineages. Other than the defining difference in the type of gamete produced, differences between males and females in one lineage cannot always be predicted by differences in another. The concept is not limited to animals; egg cells are produced by chytrids, diatoms, water moulds and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the egg- and sperm-producing organisms and structures, but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants.

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