Genetic typing of a bacterium with biotechnological potential

Pseudomonas putida is a bacterium occuring in soil, aquatic environments and plants. Although the virulence of Pseudomonas p.—the ability of the bacterium to infect its host and inflict a disease—is considered to be low, ...

New eDNA tool research helps scientists find deep sea corals

Curtin University researchers have developed a promising new toolkit for monitoring threatened coral ecosystems by analyzing environmental DNA (eDNA) extracted from waters off the coast of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

A new gene involved in strawberry fruiting time is identified

Their great taste and their health benefits have made them one of the most popular fruits. The world market for strawberries, rich in antioxidants and vitamin C, was greater than 9 millon tons in 2016. According to the latest ...

Self-restrained genes enable evolutionary novelty

Changes in the genes that control development can potentially make large contributions to evolution by generating new morphologies in plants and animals. However, because developmental genes frequently influence many different ...

A genetic tug-of-war between the sexes begets variation

In species with sexual reproduction, no two individuals are alike, and scientists have long struggled to understand why there is so much genetic variation. In a new study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, a team of ...

New twist on CRISPR technology

In a classic episode of an old-school TV comedy called I Love Lucy, we see Lucille Ball stepping into an assembly line job at a candy factory. As the pace of the conveyor belt exceeds her ability to wrap the candy, the frenzy ...

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DNA sequence

A DNA sequence or genetic sequence is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, with the capacity to carry information as described by the central dogma of molecular biology.

The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide bases of a DNA strand — adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine — covalently linked to a phosphodiester backbone. In the typical case, the sequences are printed abutting one another without gaps, as in the sequence AAAGTCTGAC, read left to right in the 5' to 3' direction. Short sequences of nucleotides are referred to as oligonucleotides and are used in a range of laboratory applications in molecular biology. With regard to biological function, a DNA sequence may be considered sense or antisense, and either coding or noncoding. DNA sequences can also contain "junk DNA."

Sequences can be derived from the biological raw material through a process called DNA sequencing.

In some special cases, letters besides A, T, C, and G are present in a sequence. These letters represent ambiguity. Of all the molecules sampled, there is more than one kind of nucleotide at that position. The rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) are as follows:

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