Mining's effect on fish warrants better science-based policies

A new paper published in Science Advances synthesizes the impact of metal and coal mines on salmon and trout in northwestern North America, and highlights the need for more complete and transparent science to inform mining ...

A new method for predicting the 11-year solar cycle strength

Scientists from Skoltech and their colleagues from the University of Graz & the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (Austria), Hvar Observatory (Croatia), and the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence—SILSO, Royal Observatory ...

The vicious cycle of extreme weather and biomass burning

There is a downward spiral of extreme weather and pollution from wildfires, domestic heating and energy production in the New York and New Jersey area, according to a new study by CUNY SPH Professors Ilias Kavouras and Glen ...

Hydrology controls lithium isotopes in rivers and seawater

Seawater lithium isotopes (δ7Li) record changes over Earth history, including a ~9‰ increase during the Cenozoic, which is interpreted as the reflection of either a change in continental silicate weathering rate or weathering ...

Soil microbes return after replanting local native plants

Robust long-term ecosystem restoration relies not just on replanting native vegetation but on the recovery of underlying soil biodiversity—yet this area has received little attention and is poorly understood, Flinders University ...

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Cycling

Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, or for sport. Persons engaged in cycling are cyclists or bicyclists. Apart from ordinary two-wheeled bicycles, cycling also includes riding unicycles, tricycles, quadracycles, and other similar human-powered vehicles (HPVs).

Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about one billion worldwide. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions.

Cycling is a very efficient and effective mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits compared to motor vehicles, including exercise, an alternative to the use of fossil fuels, no air or noise pollution, much reduced traffic congestion, easier parking, greater maneuverability, and access to both roads and paths. The advantages are at less financial cost to the user as well as society (negligible damage to roads, and less pavement required). Criticisms and disadvantages of cycling include reduced protection in crashes, particularly with motor vehicles, longer travel time (except in densely populated areas), vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in transporting passengers, and the skill and fitness required.

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