Roman road discovered in the Venice lagoon

The discovery of a Roman road submerged in the Venice Lagoon is reported in Scientific Reports this week. The findings suggest that extensive settlements may have been present in the Venice Lagoon centuries before the founding ...

US to end large, old-growth timber sales in Alaska forest

The Biden administration said Thursday that it is ending large-scale, old-growth timber sales in the country's largest national forest—the Tongass National Forest in Alaska—and will focus on forest restoration, recreation ...

Ethiopia's controversial mega-dam

Ethiopia's construction of a massive dam on a tributary of the Nile River, which the UN Security Council meets about on Thursday, is raising regional tensions notably with Egypt, which depends on the Nile for 97 percent of ...

Food scraps get a bold new life

Most people don't think much about the food scraps they throw away; however, investigators from the Institute of Industrial Science at The University of Tokyo have developed a new method to reduce food waste by recycling ...

Metamaterials offer multifunctional materials for engineering

In recent years, the popularity of metamaterials has increased significantly. These materials are not found in nature or made using chemical reactions, but are designed geometrically in the physics lab. Metamaterials can ...

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Construction

In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect.

For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding, etc.

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