Time for a radical rethink about sand?

On a sandbank on the Chambal River in northern India, the critically endangered gharial and red-crowned roofed turtle (the Chambal is the latter's last known refuge) bask side by side. It's late March and approaching the ...

How cellular fibers form and maintain dynamic states

Cells assemble dynamically: Their components are continuously exchanging and being replaced. This enables the structures to adapt easily to different situations, and by rearranging the components to respond to stimuli faster, ...

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In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect.

For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding, etc.

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