How chocolate could counter climate change

At a red-brick factory in the German port city of Hamburg, cocoa bean shells go in one end, and out the other comes an amazing black powder with the potential to counter climate change.

Can a city store as much carbon as a forest?

A team of researchers at Aalto University has developed a new tool to help urban planners keep urban developments in line with climate goals. The tool provides a metric that planners can use to improve carbon-neutral planning ...

Red-throated loons avoid North Sea windfarms

Offshore wind farms in the North Sea have reduced the population of loons—fish-eating aquatic birds also known as divers—by 94% within a one-kilometer zone, according to new research published in Scientific Reports. The ...

Reduced health risks with new epoxy resin monomer

Epoxy resin monomers used in industry can result in severe contact allergies. Researchers at the University of Gothenburg have now developed a new type of epoxy resin monomer that is far less allergenic and is based on a ...

Satellites reveal hotspots of global river extent change

Rivers are one of the most dynamic components of the water cycle on Earth's surface and play a significant role in the development of human societies, ecosystem sustainability, and regional climate. However, their natural ...

What is glass and how is it shaping our world?

From fiber optic cables to smartphones, glass is playing a major role in emerging technology. To learn more about how glass will shape future society, we spoke with Katelyn Kirchner, a doctoral candidate at Penn State, who ...

Turkey tragedy jolts quake-prone Central Asia

When a devastating earthquake and aftershocks struck Turkey and Syria this month, Klara Imangalieva—who lives in the Central Asian country of Kazakhstan—realized she had to move.

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In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect.

For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding, etc.

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