Related topics: water

Dense liquid droplets act as cellular computers

An emerging field explores how groups of molecules condense together inside cells, the way oil droplets assemble and separate from water in a vinaigrette.

A nanokelvin microwave freezer for molecules

When a highly diluted gas is cooled to extremely low temperatures, bizarre properties are revealed. Thus, some gases form a so-called Bose-Einstein condensate—a type of matter in which all atoms move in unison. Another ...

How proteins assemble may have underappreciated role in disease

Thanks to advances in genomics in recent decades, researchers now know the genetic mutations responsible for many diseases. However, researchers often still do not know how the mutation leads to the disease—what it changes ...

Biomolecular condensates within cells found to have structure

Every cell contains millions of protein molecules. Some of them have the ability to phase-separate to form non-membrane-bound compartments, called biomolecular condensates, inside a cell. It has long been assumed that there ...

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Condensation

Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vaporization. When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition.

Condensation is initiated by the formation of atomic/molecular clusters of that species within its gaseous volume—like rain drop or snow-flake formation within clouds—or at the contact between such gaseous phase and a (solvent) liquid or solid surface.

A few distinct reversibility scenarios emerge here with respect to the nature of the surface.

Condensation commonly occurs when a vapour is cooled and/or compressed to its saturation limit when the molecular density in the gas phase reaches its maximal threshold. Vapour cooling and compressing equipment that collects condensed liquids is called "condenser".

Psychrometry measures the rates of condensation from and evaporation into the air moisture at various atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Water is the product of its vapour condensation—condensation is the process of such phase conversion.

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