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Cooperation rewards water utilities

Mark Twain once said, "Whisky is for drinking, and water is for fighting over!" But what if cooperation yielded more benefit than just going it alone, when it comes to urban water utilities?

New model could improve matches between students and schools

For the majority of students in the U.S., residential addresses determine which public elementary, middle, or high school they attend. But with an influx of charter schools and state-funded voucher programs for private schools, ...

Astronauts may one day drink water from ancient moon volcanoes

Billions of years ago, a series of volcanic eruptions broke loose on the moon, blanketing hundreds of thousands of square miles of the orb's surface in hot lava. Over the eons, that lava created the dark blotches, or maria, ...

New method melds data to make a 3-D map of cells' activities

Just as it's hard to understand a conversation without knowing its context, it can be difficult for biologists to grasp the significance of gene expression without knowing a cell's environment. To solve that problem, researchers ...

Improved method to make branched polymers

Branched polymers, polymers that look like tiny tree branches, have significant potential for water filtration, the biomedical field, nanoelectronics, and other applications. Researchers have now come up with a better way ...

Precursor of spine and brain forms passively

Researchers at ETH Zurich have conducted a detailed study of neurulation—how the neural tube forms during embryonic development. They conclude that this happens less actively than previously thought. This also has implications ...

Malaria parasites form vortices

The disease of malaria is triggered by single-celled parasites that accumulate in large groups in the salivary glands of mosquitoes before transmission to human beings. The limited space there prevents them from actually ...

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Computer

A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions.

Although mechanical examples of computers have existed through much of recorded human history, the first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). These were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs). Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into a wristwatch, and can be powered by a watch battery. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". The embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are however the most numerous.

The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore computers ranging from a mobile phone to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA