Why eukaryotes, not bacteria, evolved complex multicellularity

Prokaryotic single-celled organisms, the ancestors of modern-day bacteria and archaea, are the most ancient form of life on our planet, first appearing roughly 3.5 billion years ago. The first eukaryotic cells appeared around ...

DNA reveals that unique microorganisms evolved at poles

Communities of microorganisms at the bottom of polar lakes evolved independently from other regions, influenced by the particular geological, biological, and climate history of their regions. The unique character of the microbial ...

Examining how molecular orbitals determine stability

Carboxylic acid dianions (fumarate, maleate, and succinate) play a role in coordination chemistry and, to some extent, also in the biochemistry of body cells. An HZB team at BESSY II has now analyzed their electronic structures ...

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