Did a common childhood illness take down the Neanderthals?

Did a common childhood illness take down the neanderthals?
This illustration shows the structure of the Eustachian Tube in Neanderthal Man and it's similarity to the human infant. Credit: SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University

It is one of the great unsolved mysteries of anthropology. What killed off the Neanderthals, and why did Homo sapiens thrive even as Neanderthals withered to extinction? Was it some sort of plague specific only to Neanderthals? Was there some sort of cataclysmic event in their homelands of Eurasia that lead to their disappearance?

A new study from a team of physical anthropologists and head & neck anatomists suggests a less dramatic but equally deadly cause.

Published online by the journal The Anatomical Record, the study, "Reconstructing the Neanderthal Eustachian Tube: New Insights on Disease Susceptibility, Fitness Cost, and Extinction" suggests that the real culprit in the demise of the Neanderthals was not some exotic pathogen.

Instead, the authors believe the path to extinction may well have been the most common and innocuous of childhood illnesses—and the bane of every parent of young children—.

"It may sound far-fetched, but when we, for the first time, reconstructed the Eustachian tubes of Neanderthals, we discovered that they are remarkably similar to those of human infants," said co-investigator and Downstate Health Sciences University Associate Professor Samuel Márquez, Ph.D., "Middle ear infections are nearly ubiquitous among infants because the flat angle of an infant's Eustachian tubes is prone to retain the otitis media bacteria that cause these infections—the same flat angle we found in Neanderthals."

In this age of antibiotics, these infections are easy to treat and relatively benign for human babies. Additionally, around age 5, the Eustachian tubes in human children lengthen and the angle becomes more acute, allowing the ear to drain, all but eliminating these recurring infections beyond early childhood.

But unlike , the structure of the Eustachian tubes in Neanderthals do not change with age—which means these ear infections and their complications, including respiratory infections, , pneumonia, and worse, would not only become chronic, but a lifelong threat to overall health and survival.

"It's not just the threat of dying of an ," said Dr. Márquez. "If you are constantly ill, you would not be as fit and effective in competing with your Homo sapien cousins for food and other resources. "In a world of survival of the fittest, it is no wonder that modern man, not Neanderthal, prevailed."

"The strength of the study lies in reconstructing the cartilaginous Eustachian tube," said Richard Rosenfeld, MD, MPH, MBA, Distinguished Professor and Chairman of Otolaryngology at SUNY Downstate and a world-renowned authority on children's health. "This new and previously unknown understanding of middle ear function in Neanderthal is what allows us to make new inferences regarding the impact on their health and fitness."

"Here is yet another intriguing twist on the ever-evolving Neanderthal story, this time involving a part of the body that researchers had almost entirely neglected," said Ian Tattersall, Ph.D., paleoanthropologist and Curator Emeritus of the American Museum of National History. "It adds to our gradually emerging picture of the Neanderthals as very close relatives who nonetheless differed in crucial respects from modern man."


Explore further

The ancient history of Neanderthals in Europe

More information: Anthony Santino Pagano et al, Reconstructing the Neanderthal Eustachian Tube: New Insights on Disease Susceptibility, Fitness Cost, and Extinction, The Anatomical Record (2019). DOI: 10.1002/ar.24248
Provided by SUNY Downstate Health Science University
Citation: Did a common childhood illness take down the Neanderthals? (2019, September 19) retrieved 15 October 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-09-common-childhood-illness-neanderthals.html
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Sep 19, 2019
Why dont they consider the obvious explanation, that as a temperate/subarctic species, the neanderthal reproductive cycle had become seasonal? Cromags could reproduce as all year round while neanderthal could only birth in early spring. Their pop growth had shrunk to align with their environment while the cromag, a tropical invasive species, simply outgrew and overwhelmed them?

An aggressive strategy by the way adopted by all the surviving (tropical) religions of the common era. This is basically how pagans were extincted.

Sep 19, 2019
Why dont they consider the obvious explanation, that as a temperate/subarctic species, the neanderthal reproductive cycle had become seasonal? Cromags could reproduce as all year round while neanderthal could only birth in early spring. Their pop growth had shrunk to align with their environment while the cromag, a tropical invasive species, simply outgrew and overwhelmed them?

You've outdone yourself here! Congratulations! This is one of the nuttiest things I've ever read.
Fact free, of course -- because it's yours. I'm trying to reproduce your thought process. "I know! How about overturning everything that's known about human reproduction? Because that can answer the question that's been out there for years, and that people who know what the hell they're talking about are slowly answering. Yeah! And posting it on Phys.org!"

Sep 19, 2019
An aggressive strategy by the way adopted by all the surviving (tropical) religions of the common era. This is basically how pagans were extincted.


What on earth does this even mean?

Sep 19, 2019
Why dont they consider the obvious explanation, that as a temperate/subarctic species, the neanderthal reproductive cycle had become seasonal? Cromags could reproduce as all year round while neanderthal could only birth in early spring. Their pop growth had shrunk to align with their environment while the cromag, a tropical invasive species, simply outgrew and overwhelmed them?

The neanderthals ranged from Central/Southern Europe to the Mediterranean and Southern Asia. Cold weather is one of the reasons they may have gone extinct.

Sep 19, 2019
there is no evidence neanderthals went extinct, just a bunch of dumb science media consumers lapping up proclamiations from genetics researchers who say they have looked at some genes and some of those genes did something. I am a neanderthal. why would one think they fertile period was seasonal?

Sep 19, 2019
The 'one drop' rule?
2% Neanderthal makes you a Neanderthal in reality? Same as the old take that if Neanderthal/European hybrids had a single drop of modern pure human blood they became denigrated 'half breeds' separate from the mutts of Europe? Insult intended.

After surviving and evolving for over 400,000 years on the Asian continent it would seem odd that when humans arrived the Neanderthal suddenly got earaches that wiped out the entire species.
Difficult not to offend folks at this point, common sense as well as science is really against this scenario.

Sep 19, 2019
it would seem odd that when humans arrived the Neanderthal suddenly got earaches that wiped out the entire species.
Difficult not to offend folks at this point, common sense as well as science is really against this scenario.

This isn't what the article's saying. The issue has always been cause(s) of the replacement. No one anymore thinks about explicit genocide. Instead, the questions have taken the form "what might have made them ineffective competitors (for resources) compared to modern people?"

For example, if moderns could exploit a needed resource more effectively than the Neanderthals could, then it becomes unavailable to the Neanderthals, putting them at a disadvantage. They don't even have to meet.

This reseach is suggesting a mild but significant health issue that might have a similar effect -- making for a selective differential that was nonexistent before moderns entered Europe, but was significant after.

Sep 19, 2019
Succinct, wailuku1943.

Sep 19, 2019
We know that Neanderthals, aside from inbreeding effects such as this, were healthy and survived a lot of bone breaks to as old age as Africans. Tattersall's position here is curious, he is supporting a creationist organization and is also not supporting the human selection-for-fitness idea proposed here [ https://en.wikipe...ttersall ]. This is like mixing two odd ducks and make a less believable mess. :-)

To the thread:

- Monkeys are generally not seasonal breeders [ https://www.brita...-history ].
- Neanderthals did go extinct as a separate lineage, but that is likely because they mixed back to us (since such models fit the observations and are consistent with our social dynamic of copulating whenever we can).
- Genetic researchers do not in general "look at some genes", nor do not in general alleles (or even their genes) "do something" on their own. But even if they were, so what!? Those were *anatomical* results!


Sep 19, 2019
Tattersall's position here is curious, he is supporting a creationist organization and is also not supporting the human selection-for-fitness idea proposed here [ https://en.wikipe...ttersall ].

I don't know that this is fair to Tattersall.

I assume you're talking about his connection with the Templeton Foundation and its interest in the intersections of religion and science. That doesn't interest me personally -- I think that's wasted effort -- but I don't think that it (Templeton) is a stalking horse for creationism.

I can say that i've never read anything by him or that directly references him as having a connection to creationism. I'd be terribly disappointed if that were the case; I think he's an exceptional scholar.

Sep 19, 2019
You've outdone yourself here! Congratulations! This is one of the nuttiest things I've ever read.
Fact free, of course
Well here are some facts you ought to know...

"In primates, reproductive synchrony usually takes the form of conception and birth seasonality.[3] The regulatory 'clock', in this case, is the sun's position in relation to the tilt of the earth... Divergent climate regimes differentiating Neanderthal reproductive strategies from those of modern Homo sapiens have recently been analysed in these terms."

-Now, in order to find the source, you highlight the text, right click, pick 'search Google', and see that it's better to check what otto says before spouting off.
Cold weather is one of the reasons they may have gone extinct
No, like any other animal, they adapted.

Sep 19, 2019
An aggressive strategy by the way adopted by all the surviving (tropical) religions of the common era. This is basically how pagans were extincted.
What on earth does this even mean?
Let me give you a typical example:

"There are three religious tenets that drive our growth: our women don't use birth control, they get married young and after they get married, they stay in Kiryas Joel and start a family. Our growth comes simply from the fact that our families have a lot of babies, and we need to build homes to respond to the needs of our community."
Gedalye Szegedin, village administrator

-An hungarisn hasidic community in New York state.

"According to 2008 census figures, the village has the highest poverty rate in the nation, and the largest percentage of residents who receive food stamps. More than five-eighths of Kiryas Joel residents live below the federal poverty line and more than 40 percent receive food stamps..."
Cont>

Sep 19, 2019
No I'm not a bigot, I hate all religions equally. One of the reasons is because of their strategy of irresponsible reproductive aggression, what teddy roosevelt called 'warfare of the cradle'. The more fundy the sect, the more committed they are to turning their minority into a majority.

Be it mormon, haredi, Islamist, quiverfull, or even amish, these groups have the highest growth rate in the country and around the world This is a strategy they achieved by a unique form of group selection... those who grew faster destroyed those who couldn't keep up. Tribalism on steroids.

And they are all tropical in origin. Pagans on the other hand reflected their northern environs; June weddings, rites of spring, natural contraception and abortion, and yes infanticide, to keep their numbers in check.

Culture reflects biological tendencies, their first expression. Perhaps pagans inherited their culture from the neanderthal.
Cont>

Sep 19, 2019
Tech fueled overgrowth fueling tribalism and chronic intertribal conflict. Strategies become more complex, leading to cultures which maximize their growth by forcing their women to do nothing other than bear children until it kills them. Ie, religion. And of course the women do it gladly because it is gods will.

These are things the academic community can never acknowledge for very obvious reasons.

Sep 19, 2019
Well here are some facts you ought to know...

"In primates, reproductive synchrony usually takes the form of conception and birth seasonality.[3] The regulatory 'clock', in this case, is the sun's position in relation to the tilt of the earth... "


Yay Wikipedia. I suggest you have a look at this article (cited in the Wikipedia link) Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates
Julia Ostner,Charles L. Nunn,and Oliver Schulke, in which you will find no mention of H. sapiens. Yes, we're primates. No, we're not primates whose reproductive pattern is estrus-based.

When i was teaching physical anthropology, I sometimes gave my classes an exercise in which they were to imagine a functioning human society with estrus-based reproduction. A good time was had by all. Too bad you weren't in my class. You'd have leaned something.

More later, as I find time.


Sep 20, 2019
Tech fueled overgrowth fueling tribalism and chronic intertribal conflict. Strategies become more complex, leading to cultures which maximize their growth by forcing their women to do nothing other than bear children until it kills them. Ie, religion. And of course the women do it gladly because it is gods will.

These are things the academic community can never acknowledge for very obvious reasons.

Then there's the thing that even without religion it would be good and wise for any old family, kingdom, village or city to maximize their population growth and have a larger working force. Yet, you put all blame on religion which I consider little stupid.

If religions really wanted to grow like a fire, they would have supported multi-person marriages and would have big great orgies as rituals.

Sep 20, 2019
Julia Ostner,Charles L. Nunn,and Oliver Schulke, in which you will find no mention of H. sapiens. Yes, we're primates. No, we're not primates whose reproductive pattern is estrus-based
But we're talking about Homo neanderthalensis aren't we? 'The farther north a species resides, the more seasonal its reproduction becomes.' I used to have a nice chart with many species demonstrating this. Like any animal, neanderthal babies would have a harder time surviving out of season. Seasonality - one of many options built into our accumulated genome. And like I say our cultural tendencies express seasonality which may indicate that, given enough time, homo sapiens would have adapted as well. Except for this darned technology.

"16 And the Lord God commanded the man, "You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; 17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge [of good and evil], for when you eat from it you will certainly die." gen2

-but we ate, and look at the mess we're in.

Sep 20, 2019
Then there's the thing that even without religion it would be good and wise for any old family, kingdom, village or city to maximize their population growth and have a larger working force. Yet, you put all blame on religion
I dont put all blame on religion. Fact is, soon as we became able to hunt the predators that were keeping our numbers in check, we were in trouble. Protohumans congealed into tribes to secure and protect resources, and the fight was on. Each successive tech advance has only made the tendency toward overgrowth worse.

Northern cultures exhibit cultural mores which seem to accept this and limit growth.

Sep 20, 2019
maximize their population growth and have a larger working force. Yet, you put all blame on religion which I consider little stupid
-says the guy who names himself after a conquistador and one of the worst religionists in history.

"Since the conversion to Christianity of indigenous peoples was an essential and integral part of the extension of Spanish power, making formal provisions for that conversion once the military conquest was completed was an important task for Cortés."

-what was left of them, at any rate. And equally important was the dissemination of euro seed among the savages, as it would bring them closer to the proper god. An old story - the tribal victors would kill all the males and incorporate all the females, thereby hastening the development of the species.

But no, overgrowth is not the only thing to blame religion for. Religion is codified tribalism. Speciation. It is tearing the human race apart. Only believers can be good, honest, trustworthy people.

Sep 20, 2019
If religions really wanted to grow like a fire, they would have supported multi-person marriages and would have big great orgies as rituals
Is this sarcasm?

The trick is to control growth - to be able to make it happen at the proper time. Polygamy was a convenient way of using recent widows to the task of replacing warriors lost in battle. And fertility rites were a way of encouraging seasonality. Women impregnated in June would give birth the next march. Heck, god says it's even ok to mate with your daughters if the tribe is in danger of extinction.

"1 There is a [Proper] time for everything,
and a season for every activity under the heavens...
5 ... a time to embrace and a time to refrain from embracing...
8 ... a time to love and a time to hate,
a time for war and a time for peace.
11 He has made everything beautiful in its [own] time." Ecc3

-Religion is an advanced form of husbandry. It indicates how domesticated we are.

Sep 20, 2019
imagine a functioning human society with estrus-based reproduction
-Yes and what a wonderful world it would be. Humans with a mating season... true egalitarianism for 11 months out of the year. No constant subliminal urge to reproduce, the main thing that shapes our behavior and our culture. Less growth, more trust, less misogyny, more objectivity. Except during the holidays that is... the reciprocal of 'The Purge'.

Dan Browns book 'Inferno' was about a mad (?) geneticist who spread a virus that changed our genome and made us 1/3 less fertile. They left this little detail out of the movie, again for obvious reasons. Simple mass murder, not a practical way of curing overpopulation.

But perhaps evoking the synchrony lying dormant in our genes would be an easier and more practical way of saving the species.

Sep 20, 2019
says the guy who names himself after a conquistador and one of the worst religionists in history.

"Since the conversion to Christianity of indigenous peoples was an essential and integral part of the extension of Spanish power, making formal provisions for that conversion once the military conquest was completed was an important task for Cortés."

Actually my nickname comes from the game Crash Bandicoot. Its main villain is called Neo Cortex.

I know religions have done great amounts of bad but my opinion is that it all would have happened even without religions. Maybe not the dark ages but all from witch hunting to crusades etc. It is just way easier to justify things by saying that god wants so instead of saying that a king wants so.

In modern days some religions also do a lot of good.

Sep 20, 2019
In modern days some religions also do a lot of good
Hard to say isn't it? The largest charities are secular. They give to everybody, not just believers and potential converts. And you've read what I've posted, about Hitchens re: mother teresa? The church doesn't love the poor, it loves poverty. And it creates poverty by encouraging overgrowth.

"There is something beautiful in seeing the poor accept their lot, to suffer it like Christ's Passion," Mother Teresa said. "The world gains much from their suffering."

The church made that monster a SAINT.

-No, there is no misery the church can honestly take credit for alleviating, that it hasn't created in the first place. Or that the secular world is far better able to deal with humanely and objectively.

Religion - ignorance, bigotry, misogyny, tribalism. Poison.

Sep 20, 2019
Hard to say isn't it? The largest charities are secular. They give to everybody, not just believers and potential converts. And you've read what I've posted, about Hitchens re: mother teresa? The church doesn't love the poor, it loves poverty. And it creates poverty by encouraging overgrowth.

It's not hard for me to say that religions can also do good? If that's even what you mean. By doing good I don't mean charity, I mean all the services the church operates and the general attitude towards all kind of people.

Ofc, this doesn't apply to all religions and churches.
Yes, I've seen some of your writings but haven't had the interest to do fact setting.

Sep 20, 2019
Neanderthals out of Africa

For in these African descendants
do any African hominid species
Have the same
Ear tubes into adult hood
For the answer
To this eerily mystery of anthropology
Lies in these
Neanderthal Africans

Sep 20, 2019
Neanderthals out of Africa

Our bone structure
bone for bone
knee cap for knee cap
whether out of Africa or Asia
our bone structure has remained unchanged
since the first dinosaurs walked this earth
our Knee-cap
is unique
our bone structure adapted in fish
as only dinosaurs have knee-caps
As we have knee-caps

The moral of this fishy tale
our skeleton has not evolved for billions of years
our skeleton has remain unchanged for billions of years
since the first Gollum's crawled up these beach's out this primordial slime
however nature arrived at our skeleton
Nature has not made any structural changes since it's conception billions of years ago

Nature has adapted its skeleton
with no structural changes
as in a giraffe, nature has simply elongated this skeletons neck
This skeleton is still structurally unchanged

FOR THIS REASON
When that day comes
we can no longer live on this land
fore rising sea levels hath take this land away
We will grow fins again and quietly slip in this sea

Sep 20, 2019
These ravages of this Finrot

When that day comes
we can no longer live on this land
fore rising sea levels hath take this land away
We will grow fins again and quietly slip in this sea

Fore nature does not discriminate
There will be no grassy river bank, with the safety of our Bridge

We will all
Equally suffer
These ravages of this Fin

Sep 20, 2019
I mean all the services the church operates and the general attitude towards all kind of people
The 'general attitude' of all religionists is that unbelievers cannot be good, honest, decent, trustworthy people. They do not want them in their neighborhoods, they do not want to do business with them, they do not want them teaching their kids anything nor do they want their kids playing together.

Xians favorite verse...
"16 For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life." Jon3

-And what god expects in return...
"18 Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because they have not believed in the name of God's one and only Son. 19 This is the verdict: Light has come into the world, but people loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil." Jon3

-THIS is what is EVIL.

Identical sentiment in every major surviving religion.

Sep 20, 2019
The 'general attitude' of the typical religionist
https://youtu.be/DabIO_gwRgo

-There are better versions of that interview out there. The thing is, every godder is a potential Joseph Cohen. The books are all identical in what they promise and what they expect in return. And when their overgrowth inevitably brings them into conflict with outsiders, their books all have explicit instructions on how to respond. They all adopt the 'general attitude' of a joseph cohen.

Sep 20, 2019
A little more detailed version of the above post:

-There are better versions of that interview out there. The point being, every godder is a potential Joseph Cohen. The books are all identical in what they promise and what they expect in return. The details of ritual and backstory are superfluous and immaterial.

Thing is, when their overgrowth inevitably brings them into conflict with outsiders, these holy books all have explicit instructions on how to respond. Godders will all adopt the 'general attitude' of a joseph cohen because that's what the books all require. It's why for instance the Torah is the core of both xian and Islamic holy books, because that's where all the goodies are.

The Jews may not have invented this wildly successful strategy of outgrowing and overwhelming, but they are perhaps the first to put it in writing.

Wialuku may appreciate why this all is very unpopular with acadeemies, why they cant acknowledge overpop and tribalism because of where it will lead.

Sep 20, 2019
Did a common childhood illness take down the Neanderthals?

Short answer -- NO.

Long answer -- If you think it sounds far-fetched, then perhaps wait for that ear infection to clear up, so that you can better hear your doubts, before jumping to a far out conclusion.

Sep 21, 2019
Did a common childhood illness take down the Neanderthals?

Short answer -- NO.

Long answer -- If you think it sounds far-fetched, then perhaps wait for that ear infection to clear up, so that you can better hear your doubts, before jumping to a far out conclusion.


According to geneticists, most, if not all humans have between 1-2% Neanderthal genes, which accounts for the subsequent love-making between homo sapiens and Neanderthal after their 'coming together' outside of Africa.
But one of the greatest questions that had gone unanswered for quite a time is: why didn't Black subsaharan Africans also have that 1-2% Neanderthal in their genetics? It is now assumed that those Black subsaharan Africans who DO have that small percentage were infused with it by homo sapiens who had RETURNED to East Africa, thereby spreading their genetics. It is mostly found amongst East Africans of Ethiopia and surrounding regions where H.Sapiens were more likely to have returned

Sep 22, 2019
I am a bit sad that the thread, the part I can see amongst the blocked trolls, went for discussing superstition.

I don't know that this is fair to Tattersall.

I assume you're talking about his connection with the Templeton Foundation and its interest in the intersections of religion and science. That doesn't interest me personally -- I think that's wasted effort -- but I don't think that it (Templeton) is a stalking horse for creationism.


The superstition they propagate is creationist.

I just pointed out that Tattersall is not objective. The discussion if he is a scientist in these things (since humans can compartmentalize) does not further interest me.

Sep 22, 2019
Then there's the thing that even without religion it would be good and wise for any old family, kingdom, village or city to maximize their population growth and have a larger working force.


I mean all the services the church operates and the general attitude towards all kind of people.


Exactly, so religion is not a basis for morality, it is external.

Yet the sects - notorious for their interference with sex education, interference with abortion, their misogyny, their homophobia (and then I don't mention their revenge/honor systems of some major religions) - are pretentious that they are "kind".

Then comes the fact that we can have all the morality and social grouping without the erroneous superstition and immorality in functional societies - e.g. be measurably happier - such as in Scandinavia.

Sep 22, 2019
my opinion is that it all would have happened even without religions. Maybe not the dark ages but all from witch hunting to crusades etc.


If i read correctly, that you suggest that witch hunting and crusades are not caused by religion, I think your opinion - which you are allowed to have of course - is odd.

I read up on the pseudoscience of criminology in a book authored of one. He wanted to "clean house" and suggested that antisemitism - the historical basis for suggesting "profiling" by an English detective - was invented by the first christian sects in order to compete. It was not the Roman society of the time that invented it, and the same goes for witch hunting and crusades (which are not the immediate region to plunder; they did not even want to trade, like Vikings).

The shoe is on the other foot here, you find it easy to suggest the still-not-separated-from-religion secular society was the cause. They were victims too, just ask the average crusader or "witch" villager.

Sep 22, 2019
This Postulate: Neanderthals out of Africa

SEU> But one of the greatest questions that had gone unanswered for quite a time is: why didn't Black sub-Saharan Africans also have that 1-2% Neanderthal in their genetics?

One of these Great Unanswered Questions

Where are these African Neanderthals?
Fore as these African hominids
Walked out the slime of these African forests

Where once these African great apes roamed free
These African great apes of yore
Were the first African Neanderthals

So it was soeth
Saideth the Lord
Theses African great apes begat these African Neanderthals

Soeth aseth SEU pointeth's outeth
Where in these ancient Africans tribes
Iseth thiseth 2% Neanderthal in their genetics

For to maintain This Postulate
Man Came Out Of Africa
These African Neanderthal's, were among these first African peoples, to populate this Planet Earth

Sep 22, 2019
Then there's the thing that even without religion it would be good and wise for any old family, kingdom, village or city to maximize their population growth and have a larger working force
The advent of agriculture and communal farming meant that a relatively small percentage of the community could grow enough food to feed the rest. This left the majority of people with nothing to do but make babies and fight over repro rights. People in northern environs had additional concerns; the seasons meant that they had to produce and store enough food to get them through the winter. These large stores had to be protected within walled towns and cities which quickly filled to overcapacity.

Feudalism was one solution to this problem of chronic overgrowth. The people were given their own small plots of land to farm which kept them on the verge of starvation. The church and local nobility could control growth with taxes and the tithes. And poaching in royal preserves meant death.

Sep 23, 2019
For all we know Neanderthals immune systems could have easily handled any ear infections. Just sayin

Oct 03, 2019
For all we know Neanderthals immune systems could have easily handled any ear infections. Just sayin
says DaSchheib's sock pupootie

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