Icelandic language at risk; robots, computers can't grasp it

April 22, 2017 by Egill Bjarnason
In this photo taken Saturday, April 15, 2017, Salome Sigurjonsdottir, 10, tests a voice-controlled television in an electronics store in Reykjavik. Sales assistant Einar Dadi said none of his TVs understood Icelandic. The revered Icelandic language, seen by many as a source of identity and pride, is being undermined by the widespread use of English both for mass tourism and in the voice-controlled artificial intelligence devices coming into vogue. (AP Photo/Egill Bjarnason)

When an Icelander arrives at an office building and sees "Solarfri" posted, they need no further explanation for the empty premises: The word means "when staff get an unexpected afternoon off to enjoy good weather."

The people of this rugged North Atlantic island settled by Norsemen some 1,100 years ago have a unique dialect of Old Norse that has adapted to life at the edge of the Artic.

Hundslappadrifa, for example, means "heavy snowfall with large flakes occurring in calm wind."

But the revered Icelandic , seen by many as a source of identity and pride, is being undermined by the widespread use of English, both for mass tourism and in the voice-controlled artificial intelligence devices coming into vogue.

Linguistics experts, studying the future of a language spoken by fewer than 400,000 people in an increasingly globalized world, wonder if this is the beginning of the end for the Icelandic tongue.

Former President Vigdis Finnbogadottir told The Associated Press that Iceland must take steps to protect its language. She is particularly concerned that programs be developed so the language can be easily used in digital technology.

"Otherwise, Icelandic will end in the Latin bin," she warned.

Teachers are already sensing a change among students in the scope of their Icelandic vocabulary and reading comprehension.

Anna Jonsdottir, a teaching consultant, said she often hears teenagers speak English among themselves when she visits schools in Reykjavik, the capital.

She said 15-year-old students are no longer assigned a volume from the Sagas of Icelanders, the medieval literature chronicling the early settlers of Iceland. Icelanders have long prided themselves of being able to fluently read the epic tales originally penned on calfskin.

Most high schools are also waiting until senior year to read author Halldor Laxness, the 1955 winner of the Nobel Prize in literature, who rests in a small cemetery near his farm in West Iceland.

A number of factors combine to make the future of the Icelandic language uncertain. Tourism has exploded in recent years, becoming the country's single biggest employer, and analysts at Arion Bank say one in two new jobs is being filled by foreign labor.

That is increasing the use of English as a universal communicator and diminishing the role of Icelandic, experts say.

In this photo taken Saturday, April 15, 2017, a law book penned on calf-skin in 1363 is displayed at a museum in Reykjavik. The revered Icelandic language, seen by many as a source of identity and pride, is being undermined by the widespread use of English both for mass tourism and in the voice-controlled artificial intelligence devices coming into vogue. (AP Photo/Egill Bjarnason)

"The less useful Icelandic becomes in people's daily life, the closer we as a nation get to the threshold of giving up its use," said Eirikur Rognvaldsson, a language professor at the University of Iceland.

He has embarked on a three-year study of 5,000 people that will be the largest inquiry ever into the use of the language.

"Preliminary studies suggest children at their first-language acquisition are increasingly not exposed to enough Icelandic to foster a strong base for later years," he said.

Concerns for the Icelandic language are by no means new. In the 19th century, when its vocabulary and syntax were heavily influenced by Danish, independence movements fought to revive Icelandic as the common tongue, central to the claim that Icelanders were a nation.

Since Iceland became fully independent from Denmark in 1944, its presidents have long championed the need to protect the language.

Asgeir Jonsson, an economics professor at the University of Iceland, said without a unique language Iceland could experience a brain drain, particularly among certain professions.

"A British town with a population the size of Iceland has far fewer scientists and artists, for example," he said. "They've simply moved to the metropolis."

The problem is compounded because many new computer devices are designed to recognize English but they do not understand Icelandic.

"Not being able to speak Icelandic to voice-activated fridges, interactive robots and similar devices would be yet another lost field," Jonsson said.

Icelandic ranks among the weakest and least-supported language in terms of digital technology—along with Irish Gaelic, Latvian, Maltese and Lithuanian—according to a report by the Multilingual Europe Technology Alliance assessing 30 European languages.

Iceland's Ministry of Education estimates about 1 billion Icelandic krona, or $8.8 million, is needed for seed funding for an open-access database to help tech developers adapt Icelandic as a language option.

Svandis Svavarsdottir, a member of Iceland's parliament for the Left-Green Movement, said the government should not be weighing costs when the nation's cultural heritage is at stake.

"If we wait, it may already be too late," she said.

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8 comments

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JongDan
4.2 / 5 (5) Apr 22, 2017
"Otherwise, Icelandic will end in the Latin bin," she warned.

That's a pretty ignorant way of looking at this. Latin as we know it is a classical literature language; a historical phase of a language preserved in fossilized state simply because there was a vast amount of literature available in it. Meanwhile, separate dialects of Latin slowly diverged enough that they took a life of their own, languages we nowadays know as Italian, Spanish, French, et cetera. Latin hasn't died out, we simply finally ditched the seriously outdated version of it.
rderkis
5 / 5 (3) Apr 22, 2017
We humans are a vary sentimental lot. :-) We cherish anything that makes us different as a group with a sentimental reverence.
Such as Language, dress and other customs that are uniquely our own. But many languages, dress styles etc have vanished over the years and we don't really seem to be hurting because of it. If anything it's a step to advancement as a coherent and more productive society.
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.7 / 5 (3) Apr 22, 2017
You can equate languages with species, 99% extinct, the rest evolving, ever changing. A few like esperanto domesticated.
arcmetal
1 / 5 (1) Apr 22, 2017
A well designed Icelandic voice recognition system would go a long way to solving this problem.
DonGateley
3.7 / 5 (3) Apr 22, 2017
To some extent we could preserve all of the languages that are falling into disuse by a concerted effort to get them into computers as speakers and listeners. We should do that.
arcmetal
1 / 5 (1) Apr 23, 2017
To some extent we could preserve all of the languages that are falling into disuse by a concerted effort to get them into computers as speakers and listeners. We should do that.

Ah, to preserve a language within a complex neural net as active speakers and listeners. And so, a new media is born. It would only be good when powered up, it would need an unending source of power. Very interesting.
shimiash
1 / 5 (1) Apr 23, 2017
The problem is sheer numbers as far as preserving the language. Irish has a better chance of preservation due to there are more Irish speakers outside of Ireland than there are in it. Irish is a popular second culture for many among descendents of immigrants and those choosing to assimilate Irish culture.
One key step in assimilation is learning the language as some linguists believe that culture is encoded within language. The late Alexei Kondratiev promoted all languages of the Celtic branches as key to the cultures from whence they sprang.

Iceland needs to jump on the Viking bandwagon and use it to promote learning the language in much the same way.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (1) Apr 23, 2017
There are groups and individuals dedicated to preserving endangered languages.
http://www.endang...ges.com/

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