Seven new embedded clusters detected in the Galactic halo

July 25, 2016 by Tomasz Nowakowski, Phys.org report
WISE (15′ ×15′) multicolour images centered on the central coordinates of the embedded clusters C 1074, C 939, C 1099, and C 934. North is to the top and east to the left. Circles encompass more probable cluster stars. Credit: Camargo et al., 2016.

(Phys.org)—A team of Brazilian astronomers, led by Denilso Camargo of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Porto Alegre, has discovered seven new embedded clusters located unusually far away from the Milky Way's disc. The findings, presented in a paper published July 3 on arXiv.org, could provide new insights on star cluster formation.

Embedded clusters are encased in an or gas, consisting of extremely young stars. They are crucial for astronomers to better understand and early stellar evolution. Studying these clusters could reveal the origin of stellar masses as well as the origin and evolution of protoplanetary disks, where planet formation processes take place.

In the Milky Way galaxy, most of embedded clusters lie within the thin disc less than 1,000 light years from the galactic midplane, especially in the spiral arms. However, Camargo and his team detected two young stellar clusters earlier this year, and now, after spotting seven more, suggest that they could be more common on the outskirts of the galaxy than previously thought.

"Now, we discovered seven far away from the Milky Way disc. Thus, this work points to a new paradigm in the star and star formation, in the sense that the formation of such objects occurs in the halo and it seems to be frequent," Camargo told Phys.org.

The scientists found the new clusters by analyzing the data provided by NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This space telescope is monitoring the entire galaxy in infrared light, snapping pictures of mainly remote galaxies, stars and asteroids. WISE was chosen for this job as it captures embedded clusters that are invisible at optical wavelengths, due to the fact that they are engulfed in significant amounts of interstellar dust.

"WISE provided infrared images of the entire sky, allowing us to penetrate the gas and dust within giant molecular clouds, in which the star formation can take place. Recently, we discovered more than 1,000 embedded clusters using WISE," Camargo said.

According to the research paper, three newly found objects, designated C 932, C 934, and C 939, are high-latitude embedded clusters, projected within the newly identified cloud complex. These clusters are located at a vertical distance of about 16,300 light years below the galactic disc. Other new clusters, named C 1074, C 1099, C 1100, and C 1101, are in the range from 5,500 to 10,400 light years above the disc. All these clusters are younger than five million years.

The team noted that the new findings indicate that a sterile galactic halo could host ongoing star formation. The newly detected embedded clusters provide evidence of widespread star cluster forming processes far away from the Milky Way's disc.

"The discovery of stellar clusters far away from the disc suggests that the Galactic halo is more actively forming stars than previously thought. Moreover, since most young clusters do not survive for more than five million years, the halo may be raining stars into the disc. The halo harbors generations of stars formed in clusters like those hereby detected," Camargo said.

Before the team's paper was published, it was thought that star formation processes in the Milky Way occur in the disk, but not in the halo. Thus, as Camargo concluded, this new study represents a paradigm shift, in the sense that a sterile halo becomes now a host of ongoing star formation.

Explore further: Peering into building blocks of galaxies

More information: New detections of embedded clusters in the Galactic halo, arXiv:1607.00672 [astro-ph.GA] arxiv.org/abs/1607.00672v1

Abstract
Until recently it was thought that high Galactic latitude clouds were a non-star-forming ensemble. However, in a previous study we reported the discovery of two embedded clusters (ECs) far away from the Galactic plane (∼5 kpc). In our recent star cluster catalogue we provided additional high and intermediate latitude cluster candidates. This work aims to clarify if our previous detection of star clusters far away from the disc represents just an episodic event or if the star cluster formation is currently a systematic phenomenon in the Galactic halo. We analyse the nature of four clusters found in our recent catalogue and report the discovery of three new ECs with unusually high latitude and distance from the Galactic disc midplane. All of these clusters are younger than 5 Myr. The high-latitude ECs C 932, C 934, and C 939 appear to be related to a cloud complex about 5 kpc below the Galactic disc, under the Local arm. The other clusters are above the disc, C 1074 and C 1100 with a vertical distance of ∼3 kpc, C 1099 with ∼2 kpc, and C 1101 with ∼1.8 kpc. According to the derived parameters there occur ECs located below and above the disc, which is an evidence of widespread star cluster formation throughout the Galactic halo. Thus, this study represents a paradigm shift, in the sense that a sterile halo becomes now a host of ongoing star formation. The origin and fate of these ECs remain open. There are two possibilities for their origin, Galactic fountain or infall. The discovery of ECs far from the disc suggests that the Galactic halo is more actively forming stars than previously thought and since most ECs do not survive the textit{infant mortality} it may be raining stars from the halo into the disc, and/or the halo harbours generations of stars formed in clusters like those hereby detected.

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24 comments

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wduckss
1 / 5 (5) Jul 25, 2016
"All these clusters are younger than five million years."

5 Myr is insignificant time within creation (the formation of the body).
In the outer space (distant the Galactic halo) temperatures are low (around and below 3 ° C).
This is applied impact laws cold temperatures. There is less resistance unseen matter and all the faster.
Faster rotation = more temperature of the body and higher gloss (along a smaller radius (mass / radius) and a higher surface gravity).
Tuxford
1.4 / 5 (9) Jul 25, 2016
Moreover, since most young clusters do not survive for more than five million years, the halo may be raining stars into the disc.

ASSUMPTION, in both ways.
This news is just more support for my comment about the conical ejections from the core in this X-core story.
http://phys.org/n...axy.html
Go ahead maniacs, mark me down. I will still be right, and you will still be wrong.
Benni
1.4 / 5 (9) Jul 25, 2016
Camargo and his team detected two young stellar clusters earlier this year, and now, after spotting seven more, suggest that they could be more common on the outskirts of the galaxy than previously thought.
"Now, we discovered seven star clusters far away from the Milky Way disc. Thus, this work points to a new paradigm in the star and star cluster formation, in the sense that the formation of such objects occurs in the halo and it seems to be frequent,


OMG, displacing the position where Zwicky predicted we should expect to find envelopes of Dark Matter Cosmic Fairy Dust?

They've gotta stop finding Visible Matter stuff like this, or Shavero & Schneibo are gonna get really mad at them, and you don't want those two DM Enthusiasts mad at you for messing with their Cosmic Fairy Dust theories, yeah, they'll like as not exact some extreme form of punishment on you, like add you to their Ignore list.

Uncle Ira
4.6 / 5 (9) Jul 25, 2016
Great, now all we need is Really-Skippy to come along and tell us this is what he has been telling us for the last ten years.
Nik_2213
5 / 5 (6) Jul 25, 2016
If extrapolated to rest of halo, how much 'missing matter' does this represent ??
Benni
1 / 5 (8) Jul 25, 2016
If extrapolated to rest of halo, how much 'missing matter' does this represent ??


You don't get it do you? If there are 7 we know of, how many more that we don't?

I see Schneibo was quick to give you a 5 on that because he still has his hopes up that 80-95% of the Milky Way really is missing & hopes those 7 are the last ones that will be discovered. Right smack in the galactic HALO where Zwicky claims the Missing Mass is located around Spiral galaxies.

But odd isn't it, that these 7 aren't exhibiting gravitationally odd orbital characteristics you might expect to OBSERVE if they were positioned within a huge sea of Dark Matter? Maybe if Camargo could get some time on that telescope through which Schneibo claims pictures of Black Holes have been taken, he could get some more answers? But maybe not the answers Schneibo wants.
Tuxford
1 / 5 (5) Jul 25, 2016
Benni, I get it. You are a moron.

Name calling is all you got? Pathetic.
Da Schneib
4.1 / 5 (9) Jul 25, 2016
If extrapolated to rest of halo, how much 'missing matter' does this represent ??
Not much if any. The star clusters are made from gas in the halo; thus, there is little missing mass here.

It is notable that these are open clusters, not globular clusters which up until this finding were believed to be the only stars in the halo. This is actually a pretty ground-breaking discovery.
Whydening Gyre
4.1 / 5 (9) Jul 25, 2016
If extrapolated to rest of halo, how much 'missing matter' does this represent ??

You don't get it do you? If there are 7 we know of, how many more that we don't?

Think he does get it. It's why he asked for an extrapolation.
And if there's more clusters, there's bound to be more than a few stars out there on their own...
...(insert short paragraph of Benni blah-blah bluster, here...)
But odd isn't it, that these 7 aren't exhibiting gravitationally odd orbital characteristics you might expect to OBSERVE if they were positioned within a huge sea of Dark Matter?

How do you know that? That statement will require a source reference. Not just the opinion of a guy who works in a Nuclear power plant...
Whydening Gyre
4.2 / 5 (10) Jul 25, 2016
If extrapolated to rest of halo, how much 'missing matter' does this represent ??
Not much if any. The star clusters are made from gas in the halo; thus, there is little missing mass here.

It is notable that these are open clusters, not globular clusters which up until this finding were believed to be the only stars in the halo. This is actually a pretty ground-breaking discovery.

It's also kinda interesting how there is also another article up about the massive hydrogen halo existing around the Milky Way...
Benni
1.5 / 5 (8) Jul 25, 2016
C'mon DM Enthusiasts, get over to the other one about the size of the Milky Way Halo:

http://phys.org/n...alo.html

Yeah, the halo has been found & it ain't DARK. Now in addition to all these galaxy clusters swirling around in that halo, more VM to deal with that Zwicky didn't know was there? No wonder that detector reported last week that it couldn't find any of that DM Cosmic Fairy Dust.

Where does the Dark Matter Narrative go from here?
Da Schneib
4.1 / 5 (9) Jul 25, 2016
@Nik, I hunted up a recent paper on halo baryon density, you may find this interesting: http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.2430

@Whyde, I think you'll get some from it too.
Da Schneib
4.1 / 5 (9) Jul 25, 2016
Hey, @Lenni, I see you're still posting here.

Where are your solutions to the PDEs you claimed you could work?

Here they are:
-m'' + m'n' - m'² - 2m'/r = 0
m'' + m'² - m'n' - 2m'/r = 0
e⁻²ⁿ (1 + m'r - n'r) - 1 = 0
R₂₂ sin² ϕ = 0

Source: http://www.etsu.e...esis.pdf

Now get to it.
Benni
1.5 / 5 (8) Jul 25, 2016
If extrapolated to rest of halo, how much 'missing matter' does this represent ??
Not much if any. The star clusters are made from gas in the halo; thus, there is little missing mass here.

Hey, get updated, the HALO equals the entire Milky Way in mass & it's all visible matter. Add the HALO to the CLUSTERS being discovered & it exceeds the entire disk of the galaxy.

Benni
1.5 / 5 (8) Jul 25, 2016
Hey, @Lenni, I see you're still posting here.

Where are your solutions to the PDEs you claimed you could work?

Here they are:
-m'' + m'n' - m'² - 2m'/r = 0
m'' + m'² - m'n' - 2m'/r = 0
e⁻²ⁿ (1 + m'r - n'r) - 1 = 0
R₂₂ sin² Ď� = 0

Now get to it.


Sure, will do.......got those pictures of Black Holes ready yet? We'll do an even trade on it.....deal?
Da Schneib
4.3 / 5 (11) Jul 25, 2016
Still can't work 'em.

Liar.
Benni
1.5 / 5 (8) Jul 25, 2016
Still can't work 'em.

Liar.


You don't have those Black Hole pictures ready yet? I'm beginning to think you are the "liar" claiming to have something you knew you didn't have.

Oh, found those Partial DEs you claimed were in Einstein's GR? Still waiting on you to produce them to back up your claim that Einstein put up solutions to PDEs in GR proving the existence of Black Holes........waiting, Waiting, WAITING.....
Whydening Gyre
4.4 / 5 (7) Jul 26, 2016
@Nik, I hunted up a recent paper on halo baryon density, you may find this interesting: http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.2430

@Whyde, I think you'll get some from it too.

A little...:-)
Whydening Gyre
4.6 / 5 (9) Jul 26, 2016
Hey, @Lenni, I see you're still posting here.

Where are your solutions to the PDEs you claimed you could work?

Here they are:
-m'' + m'n' - m'² - 2m'/r = 0
m'' + m'² - m'n' - 2m'/r = 0
e⁻²ⁿ (1 + m'r - n'r) - 1 = 0
R₂₂ sin² ÄŽď�� = 0

Now get to it.


Sure, will do.......got those pictures of Black Holes ready yet? We'll do an even trade on it.....deal?

Actually, I think DS's request came a few weeks before yours, so....
Get to it, Benni...
Benni
1.5 / 5 (8) Jul 26, 2016
Actually, I think DS's request came a few weeks before yours, so....
Get to it, Benni...


You guys in the Rant Brigade create any false narrative you need to defend one another's hypocrisy. Why do you find such a compelling need on your part to invent this dumb timeline?

Schneibo started punting to the math when he was unable to stand down my challenge to him to produce the PDEs via which he claimed Einstein predicted the existence of Black Holes in GR, he still won't produce them & subsequently came up with this diversion a couple days later.

Subsequent to my challenge to produce what he claimed is found in GR about BHs, he went off on yet another tirade with the old boy following up telling stories that he's seen pictures of Black Holes.

You want respect as one who is an aficionado of science? Then don't be like Zwicky, stop acting zany & corny & better spend your time playing with the grandkiddies.

,

LifeBasedLogic
Jul 26, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Da Schneib
4.5 / 5 (8) Jul 26, 2016
A person can't be a liar.
More wackiness.

What are you even here for? There's nothing here that could possibly interest you. It's all like, science-y and stuff.
epoxy
Jul 26, 2016
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
ursiny33
not rated yet Jul 28, 2016
I can't even wait for that new telescope, to launch, that will find alot new stuff, so we can quit hearing about missing matter, it will find alot fellers

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