Charting the slow death of the Universe

Charting the slow death of the Universe
This composite picture shows how a typical galaxy appears at different wavelengths in the GAMA survey. This huge project has measured the energy output of more than 200 000 galaxies and represents the most comprehensive assessment of the energy output of the nearby Universe. The results confirm that the energy produced in a section of the Universe today is only about half what it was two billion years ago and find that this fading is occurring across all wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Credit: ICRAR/GAMA and ESO

An international team of astronomers studying more than 200 000 galaxies has measured the energy generated within a large portion of space more precisely than ever before. This represents the most comprehensive assessment of the energy output of the nearby Universe. They confirm that the energy produced in a section of the Universe today is only about half what it was two billion years ago and find that this fading is occurring across all wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. The Universe is slowly dying.

The study involves many of the world's most powerful telescopes, including ESO's VIST and VST survey telescopes at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. Supporting observations were made by two orbiting space telescopes operated by NASA GALEX and WISE and another belonging to the European Space Agency Herschel.

The research is part of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) project, the largest multi-wavelength survey ever put together.

"We used as many space and ground-based telescopes as we could get our hands on to measure the energy output of over 200 000 galaxies across as broad a wavelength range as possible," says Simon Driver ICRAR, The University of Western Australia, who heads the large GAMA team.

The survey data, released to astronomers around the world today, includes measurements of the energy output of each galaxy at 21 wavelengths, from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. This dataset will help scientists to better understand how different types of galaxies form and evolve.

All the energy in the Universe was created in the Big Bang, with some portion locked up as mass. Stars shine by converting mass back into energy, as described by Einstein's famous equation E=mc2. The GAMA study sets out to map and model all of the energy generated within a large volume of space today and at different times in the past.

Scientists measure slow death of the Universe
The distribution of galaxies is seen as mapped by various Australia, US and European survey teams. In total we have mapped the locations of over 4 million galaxies that can be used to study the evolution of mass, energy and structure in the Universe over the past few billion years. Credit: ICRAR / GAMA.

"While most of the energy sloshing around in the Universe arose in the aftermath of the Big Bang, additional energy is constantly being generated by stars as they fuse elements like hydrogen and helium together," Simon Driver says. "This new energy is either absorbed by dust as it travels through the host galaxy, or escapes into intergalactic space and travels until it hits something, such as another star, a planet, or, very occasionally, a telescope mirror."

The fact that the Universe is slowly fading has been known since the late 1990s, but this work shows that it is happening across all wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the infrared, representing the most comprehensive assessment of the of the nearby Universe.

Scientists measure slow death of the Universe
A galaxy from the GAMA survey was observed at 20 different wavelengths from the far ultraviolet to the far infrared. Credit: ICRAR / GAMA.

"The Universe will decline from here on in, sliding gently into old age. The Universe has basically sat down on the sofa, pulled up a blanket and is about to nod off for an eternal doze," concludes Simon Driver.

The team of researchers hope to expand the work to map energy production over the entire history of the Universe, using a swathe of new facilities, including the world's largest radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array, which is due to be built in Australia and South Africa over the next decade.

The team will present this work at the International Astronomical Union XXIX General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii, on Monday 10 August 2015.


Explore further

Huge new survey to shine light on dark matter

More information: 'Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Panchromatic Data Release (far-UV—far-IR) and the low-z energy budget' submitted to the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Available at www.simondriver.org/mwavev02.pdf
Provided by ESO
Citation: Charting the slow death of the Universe (2015, August 10) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-08-death-universe.html
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Aug 10, 2015
Entropy is the Mutha

Aug 10, 2015
"Nobleness was one word for making a fuss about the trivial inevitabilities of life, but there were others." - D. Adams

Aug 10, 2015
This seems like a worthwhile use of intellectual energy...

Aug 10, 2015
I agree, it's an amazing project that reveals much about the universe at a fantastic scale. A stupendous achievement...

Aug 10, 2015
This dataset will help scientists to better understand how different types of galaxies form and evolve.


Boilerplate language once again, because they don't have a clue.

Far too little explanation given about the assumptions made in this study. Likely suspect. They are missing something.

Note the near concentric ring in the UV spectrum: A recent galactic superwave propagating outward from the core. And very far out, the remnants of an earlier superware.

Aug 10, 2015
This dataset will help scientists to better understand how different types of galaxies form and evolve.


Boilerplate language once again, because they don't have a clue.

Far too little explanation given about the assumptions made in this study. Likely suspect. They are missing something.

Note the near concentric ring in the UV spectrum: A recent galactic superwave propagating outward from the core. And very far out, the remnants of an earlier superware.


Evidence?

Aug 10, 2015
Well, I'm not too sure what a 'dying universe means exactly. In another few billion years our Sun will start to 'die' too and probably that fate, or similar, faces all stars. Will new stars form at a rate equal to those dying. If the birth of new stars is less then I suppose the universe might be transformed into something else but would gravity take over from there? If the birth of news stars is greater than those dying would the ratio of distribution be important?

Aug 10, 2015
Time to party.

Aug 11, 2015
This seems like a worthwhile use of intellectual energy...

This comes off as sarcastic to me. Is it?

Aug 11, 2015
If energy can neither be created nor destroyed, then how can the universe die? Or, how can it be born in a big bang? Scientists should avoid assuming the birth of the universe (i.e an uncaused first cause) or the death of the universe (i.e an effect which isn't followed by another cause) or else the whole chain of causality is contradicted. And the chain of causality is precisely that upon which the empirical method is based. All the ancient philosophers understood this very well.

Hannes Alfven also understood this well. As do many other scientists who haven't blindly followed the theological claims of modern science.

Aug 11, 2015
errh...no conservation of energy then? Isn't the energy distribution just less dense due to the expanding universe? Hasn't the energy been converted to mass?

Making an observation and concluding that the universe is dying without trying to answer why and how this is happening seems a little presumptuous. There's too much information missing here.

Aug 11, 2015
If energy can neither be created nor destroyed, then how..

...can there be perpetual high ampere currents in a steady state Universe? Good question.

else the whole chain of causality is contradicted

That's a bold assertion and a bit of tossing the baby out with the bath water. I'm not sure how Hannians see the expansion of the Universe and logically don't deduce that everything must have been closer beforehand. If you wind back to where space time is all bound up in a very dense state how can you have a prior cause? Thus the causal chain has a start. I suppose this is the part where you link to red shift caused by plasma to explain the Universal red shift although it doesn't.

All the ancient philosophers understood this very well.

http://rationalwi...t_wisdom

Hannes Alfven also understood this well...blindly followed the theological claims...

Rich coming from an Alfvenian Zealot appealing to ancient wisdom.

Aug 11, 2015
Lets call it the Dark Wall Outlet hypothesis, DWO !

I'm conjuring images of the giant atmosphere-sucking vacuum ship from Space Balls.


Aug 11, 2015
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Aug 11, 2015
https://en.wikipe...plankton
. Phytoplankton concentrations in surface waters were estimated to have decreased by about 40% since 1950 alone, at a rate of around 1% per year, possibly in response to ocean warming.
I suspect that not only the required minerals and B vitamins, the lack of brightness of Sol, our sun, is responsible.

Aug 11, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.

Aug 11, 2015
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Aug 11, 2015
This seems like a worthwhile use of intellectual energy...

This comes off as sarcastic to me. Is it?


Yes, it was intended as sarcasm. Mostly directed toward the headline... it creates an image of great minds and expensive instruments focused on the inevitable "end" of the universe instead of the here and now. Not productive use of resources IMO. I also resent when we assume we know what's happening, or even worse GOING to happen, on the universal scale.

Aug 11, 2015
I'm more than a little surprised that people can't see the theological implications inherent in believing that everything around us was created in an instant billions of years ago. I'm also shocked that people can't see the religious undertones in suggesting that the end of the world is nigh. A little philosophy can be a fine thing, and would help scientists understand the premises of their own arguments.

Aug 11, 2015
@bschott
Black Holes and their theorized properties for a start...no observed counterpart in reality

Uhhhh...how can you explain away this?
The Proper Motion of Sagittarius A*. II. The Mass of Sagittarius A*
http://iopscience...ext.html

or
Compact Radio Sources within 30′′ of Sgr A*: Proper Motions, Stellar Winds and the Accretion Rate onto Sgr A*
http://arxiv.org/...82v1.pdf

OK.....data? (I mean the measured kind, not the equation kind)

It doesn't take a genius to understand he's just paraphrasing basic thermodynamics and entropy. I suppose I can google some scholarly articles on thermodynamics for you but lets be real you don't want to read anything that doesn't conform to your world view. Fortunately Science doesn't work like that.

Aug 11, 2015
I'm more than a little surprised that people can't see the theological implications inherent in believing that everything around us was created in an instant billions of years ago. I'm also shocked that people can't see the religious undertones in suggesting that the end of the world is nigh. A little philosophy can be a fine thing, and would help scientists understand the premises of their own arguments.

I'm guessing you are the one that doesn't understand the premises of the scientists' arguments. It's not a theological statement if it's predictive, factual, observed, and tested. No one suggested the end of the world is nigh but if they did and it was based on evidence and well-reasoned inference ie: a catastrophic collision with a near Earth object, then it wouldn't be theological in nature. The Standard Model has been tested again and again and is not theological but scientific.

Aug 11, 2015
Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.


Talk about self refutation there, bud.

Aug 11, 2015
I'm more than a little surprised that people can't see the theological implications inherent in believing that everything around us was created in an instant billions of years ago. I'm also shocked that people can't see the religious undertones in suggesting that the end of the world is nigh. A little philosophy can be a fine thing, and would help scientists understand the premises of their own arguments.


And a little scientific knowledge would help so called philosophers realise that they don't actually know what they're talking about.

Aug 12, 2015
And a little scientific knowledge would help so called philosophers realise that they don't actually know what they're talking about.


Democritus and Epicurus developed the atomism which was further worked on by Gassendi, Descartes and Mendeleev. It's a real shame that many modern scientists don't realise where the ideas come from which they believe in with such religious fervour.

Of course, there are many scientists who do realise the absurdity of believing in an uncaused cause (which is an anti-empirical assumption, and offers NO predictions whatsoever). Hannes Alfven is one (he won the nobel prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics), and reading his work is an absolute pleasure, for someone like me who enjoys real science (i.e science based on the experimental method). But there are many others. Fred Hoyle for example.

Aug 12, 2015
Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh: So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.

----------Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.----------

But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.


What does this have to do with science?

Aug 12, 2015
Of course, there are many scientists who do realise the absurdity of believing in an uncaused cause

Funnily enough we have every reason (read: experiment) to believe that strict causality isn't part of the natural order of things but merely an apparent averaging effect over many probabilistic events.

So an "uncaused cause" is not a problem as per standard theories. It doesn't have to be caused and because - by that very same fact - the 'beginning' isn't a cause as you would define it.

I'm more than a little surprised that people can't see the theological implications inherent in believing that everything around us was created in an instant billions of years ago. I'm also shocked that people can't see the religious undertones in suggesting that the end of the world is nigh.

So the surprise is all on our side (i.e. we're surprised that you haven't gotten the memo yet on how the universe works - or more precise: how it doesn't work). Get with the program.

Aug 12, 2015
Cosmic Background Radiation is a convincing argument (for many) for the Big Bang theory. These measurements should give a accurate value of the cosmological constant, which does define the (supposed) fate of the universe. But than they measure energy.

Also E^2 = (mc^2)^2+(pc)^2, in a frame of reference where the particles are 'at rest', pc == 0. Though c^2 is always positive, the mass can still be a negative quantity.

Essentially we see energy change/ mass change with no clue if the 'normal' matter (positive m) is increasing or decreasing against the 'dark' matter (negative m)

Aug 12, 2015
@gergroeneveld
mass can still be a negative

Negative Mass has no observational data to support it that I'm aware of. Furthermore, Dark Matter is by nature of its effects massive--thus proposals such as WIMPs and MACHOS.

@Anyone with a stronger physics background than me
If m is a negative number and E=mc^2 then negative mass begets negative energy?
If I look at E^2=(mc^2)^2 + (pc)^2 and make p = 0 and m= -1 and I solve for E I get a positive E for a negative mass. Is this a quirk of math, am I being foolish, or is this explicable?

Aug 12, 2015

How can it be presumptous to report an observation?


Thanks for getting back. It's not the observation report itself, it's the lack of how and why this is happening and connecting it to "the slow death of our universe" that bothers.

Of course energy can be converted into matter (sorry for using mass) in various ways, from photosynthesis to electron/positron pair production. Simply said, I would like to read a more comprehensive explanation of where the "missing" energy has gone

Aug 12, 2015
@Anyone with a stronger physics background than me
OK

If m is a negative number and E=mc^2 then negative mass begets negative energy?
If I look at E^2=(mc^2)^2 + (pc)^2 and make p = 0 and m= -1 and I solve for E I get a positive E for a negative mass. Is this a quirk of math, am I being foolish, or is this explicable?


If you know the mass of one mole of atoms using the mass number listed on the periodic table, then you divide that number by Avogadro's constant: 6.022x10^23 which gives you the mass of one single atom., always an absolute value number.

Aug 12, 2015
If m is a negative number and E=mc^2 then negative mass begets negative energy?

Or an imaginary speed of light ;-)

Anyhow, p can't be zero because that would imply complete/defined rest (which isn't possible because of the Uncertainty principle. This part will always have a positive contribution)

Note that it is possible to create negative energy (e.g. squeezed light) or have virtual particles with negative energy (e.g. the part that falls in to diminish the mass of a black hole due to Hawking radiation). Also note that none of these phenomena result in a net negative mass/energy, but just a local negative mass/energy density


Aug 12, 2015
If the age of the universe is determined by the Doppler frequencies, and the energy is a function of frequency, then the result that they measured follows directly, resulting in a false conclusion.


GAMA is a spectroscopic survey, redshift is accounted for. Fluxes were converted to the rest frame, please actually read the paper before trying to claim it's wrong.

Aug 12, 2015
the math which calculates the transfer of a photon produced in the core, from particle to particle until it is emitted at the surface would be really close. (~3000 years)
Presuming this is what you are referring to as kinetic energy below?

But you cannot possibly have a process driven by kinetic energy transfer happen faster than photonic transmission through the same. This is basic physics, something that gets ignored if all that is checked in peer review is if the situational math is done properly.


KE=1/2mv*2 : particle to particle transmission alias "work", always less than speed of light.

E (photonic)=mc*2 : photonic transmission occurs at light speed.

.....as you stated bschott, "basic physics".


Aug 12, 2015
"you cannot possibly have a process driven by kinetic energy transfer happen faster than photonic transmission through the same, if not denser medium"

Yes you can, if the medium has sufficient radiation extinction then it is down to slow heat transport. This can take 3000 years for a distance of 700000 km

Observationally, an SN explodes in a very short time. I do not see any problem.
......because you don't comprehend basic physics, that an exploding SN is a kinetic energy process whereby KE= 1/2 mv*2 is a mechanical work process of particle to particle heat transfer of energy (photons).


Aug 13, 2015
The conclusion that science reaches here comes to something that was figured out a long time ago

That the universe will one day not have enough matter/energy for any further star formation and that in the last 2 billion years the em output has halved? Where is that in your parable or bible again? I've read it more than once and I don't remember that part...
with far less financial resources, just by following the Truth with Life. Christ had/has this correct, as did/do others.

They took a shot in the dark and were wrong except in at best a very vague way that can be chalked up to coincidence and your type stretching like crazy trying to convince others and connect your religious beliefs to real science . Where does the bible and Christ mention the death of the universe as described here?
The fantasy of a Goldilocks zone is a creation of science.

Why do you believe that?

Aug 13, 2015
because you don't comprehend basic physics, that an exploding SN is a kinetic energy process whereby KE= 1/2 mv*2 is a mechanical work process of particle to particle heat transfer of energy (photons).


Nuh uh. It's not a transfer of heat via photons as if it was electrostatic repulsion but a pressure wave powered by degeneracy. One is a quantum effect and the other is mediated by photon transfer. Assuming a type II supernova the rapid collapse produces neutrons and given the correct mass neutron degeneracy causes a stall in the rapid implosion. The equal an opposite rebound accelerates the layers above the core to escape velocity. Applying basic day to day physics ignores a great deal of what's going on. The degeneracy powered shockwave annihilates the convective zone and leads to nuclear burning of heavier metals.

Aug 13, 2015
because you don't comprehend basic physics, that an exploding SN is a kinetic energy process whereby KE= 1/2 mv*2 is a mechanical work process of particle to particle heat transfer of energy (photons).


Nuh uh. It's not a transfer of heat via photons as if it was electrostatic repulsion but a pressure wave powered by degeneracy. One is a quantum effect and the other is mediated by photon transfer. Assuming a type II supernova the rapid collapse produces neutrons and given the correct mass neutron degeneracy causes a stall in the rapid implosion. The equal an opposite rebound accelerates the layers above the core to escape velocity. Applying basic day to day physics ignores a great deal of what's going on.The degeneracy powered shockwave annihilates the convective zone and leads to nuclear burning of heavier metals.
...........It's just so blatantly obvious you have never taken a Thermodynamics course, or you would not have just made such a blunderous statement.

Aug 13, 2015
Hi all. :)

I've time for one thread/comment today. I chose this because of the seeming confusions between: 'free space mediated' propagation of 'phoTonic' energy perturbation in underlying energy-space 'field', and 'boundary-layer-mediated' propagation of 'plasMonic' energy perturbations in higher-level energy-space 'fields' such as contiguous -ponderous-matter aggregations

To illustrate: Consider what happens in Bose-Einstein Condensate when photon enters from outside the aggregation-boundary from one side. The photonic energy is transformed into a PHONIC pattern of perturbation (in the 'contiguous plasmonic layers' effectively existing between the atom surfaces in 'superposition states' forming a 'chain of contiguity' in that 'plasmonic field' which mediates the propagation of the 'energy pattern') at applicable SONIC 'v' across to other side; where the 'energy pattern' reconverts to photonic as it emerges and travels at 'c' once more in free space. Cheers. :)

Aug 15, 2015
Gravity is not responsible for the formation of the cosmic structures in the visible iniverse. It only hold the integrity of this structuers for a while. Because the results of calculation that modern shamans astrologers make according to their theories do not corespond to the observational and experimental data, they invented invisible and elusive dark matter. With such kind of imaginary phenomena they are traing to explain the reality while preserve their vain beleave system, which denies the root cause about our physical reality - the Creator. They do everything else but not science.

Aug 15, 2015
the 'energy pattern' reconverts to photonic as it emerges and travels at 'c' once more in free space.


Actually RC, I'm not sure what you just said, but let me make a stab at it from based on your comment about reconverting to "c" in free space.

When heat (infrared photons) are traversing the distance between particles it occurs at light speed. It doesn't matter where those particles are located, inside the Sun or interstellar space, any "gap" from one particle to the next is traversed at light speed.

Infrared photons encountering an atom is absorbed into the mass of that atom & emitted after the passage of time during which it was energetically altering the atomic structure of the atom it encountered. The atomic structure of an atom is altered by the absorption of an infrared photon causing the electron shell to reconfigure electrons to a higher orbital position. Electrons changing orbital positions do so at 1/2 mv*2 & is what creates convective heat.

Aug 17, 2015
Hi Benni. :)

Sorry, can't say much more on this aspect without letting some ToE 'cats out of the bag' before I publish complete. I suggest you think through the associated implications/ramifications of the Bose-Einstein example I gave you to consider.

Also note the energy/electron/wave 'transport mechanisms' in plasma context recently presented in PO article: http://phys.org/n...oss.html

Now also consider these processes in the context of solar 'degeneracy pressures' and roiling turbulence in both plasm flows and magnetic interaction (ie, internal reflection/absorption/refraction/conversion etc etc) with high-energy E-M perturbations in the high-density dynamics of plasma/plasmonic of solar interior/exterior contexts.

It's more complicated than just the 'clean modes' already considered in discussion so far. Sorry I can't stay/say more at present.

Bye again for now, Benni, everyone. Cheers all. :)

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