Where did the Big Bang happen?

February 13, 2015 by Fraser Cain, Universe Today
Dr. Neil deGrasse Tyson contemplates the Big Bang. Credit: Image courtesy of Fox.

Close your eyes and imagine the Big Bang. That first moment, where all the energy, matter and light came into existence. It's an explosion right? Fire, debris, sinks, marmots and anvils flying past the camera in an ever expanding cloud of hot gas.

And like any explosion, there must be an aftermath, right? Some place we could travel in the Universe and see the exact spot that everything began; the exact location where the Big Bang happened and ideally a huge crater in spacetime where the Universe began.

I expect you're imagining our little scene in your mind. Complete with space-time indentations and orbital detritus. I hope you're also getting the unsettling feeling of dread that I'm about to smash up beloved sci-fi tropes for my own amusement. And here it is…

There's no exact spot that the Big Bang happened. In fact, the Big Bang happened everywhere in the Universe. The problem generally comes from the term "Big Bang". It brings to mind explosions, detonations, balloons being popped, and everything being blown out to chickenbasket hades. It's too bad for us regular folk, this isn't a good descriptive term for what the Big Bang was.

So I'm going to propose a new term, and just use it from here on out, and pretend like it was always this way. So, from here on out, I'm going to call it the Big Stretch, and by that I mean I've always called it the Big Stretch, and for those of you familiar with this type of retconning, the chocolate ration is being increased from 40 grams to 25 grams.

Imagine a balloon covered in dots, then inflate the balloon. Also, for the purposes of this illustration, you're a 2-dimensional creature living at one of those dots and watching all the other dots. From your perspective, everything will smell like that weird damp spit and rubber balloon scent.

Imagine the Big Bang, and you’re imagining an explosion. There must be come place we could travel in the Universe and see the wreckage left over from the Big Bang. So, where is it?

You'll also see all other other dots moving away from you. You might even think you're at the center of the expansion of the balloon. And then if you jumped to any other dot, you'd see the same thing. Just smelly dots, all racing away from you.

Now a lesser being would get all caught up thinking about the fact that the balloon is a three-dimensional object, and the center of the expansion is actually at the middle of the balloon. But you're a 2D creature. You can't comprehend anything but the surface of the balloon. That and the funky smell.

Now take that concept and scale it up one more dimension. As a three-dimensional creature trapped within a three-dimensional Universe witnessing it stretching out three dimensions. Every galaxy is moving away from you. But if you travel to any other galaxy, it looks like all the other galaxies are moving away from them.

Expansion of the Universe. Credit: Eugenio Bianchi, Carlo Rovelli & Rocky Kolb.

Could a four-dimensional being find the center of the expansion, the place where the Big Bang happened? Probably. 4D beings are cool like that. But then, a 5D being would probably laugh at their simplistic 4D view of the Universe, with their quaint Klein bottles and rustic hypercubes. Suck it 4D jerks, they'd say, and then they'd trap them in their 5D lockers for the entirety of recess until the janitor heard the banging and let them out.

And don't get me started on those 11D jerks. Those guys are awful, and they really think they're better than everyone else. They're like Greg Marmand from Omega House but with 8 more dimensions of nose to look down at you across.

So, where did the Big Bang happen? It happened everywhere. All places formed in the Big Bang – I mean – Big Stretch, and they've been moving away from each other for 13.8 billion years. There's no one place you can point to and say: the Big Bang happened there.But you can be totally obnoxious and point to anywhere, and say the Big Bang happened there. Since the Big Bang happened everywhere, it happened in your hometown. Tell us where you're from in the comments below.

Explore further: What is the universe expanding into?

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cantdrive85
2.7 / 5 (23) Feb 13, 2015
Where did the Big Bang happen?


Only in the meager minds of fanciful astrophysicists clinging to their theologically based belief systems.
Denovalin
2.3 / 5 (3) Feb 13, 2015
There was an article recently about a paper describing a model where the Universe is static and the Big Bang (Big Stretch in your words) never happened. It is an interesting read and an article about it is over on phys.org
movementiseternal
Feb 13, 2015
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movementiseternal
Feb 13, 2015
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Yohaku
1.4 / 5 (7) Feb 13, 2015
OK, here's the problem with that viewpoint. The Cosmic Microwave background is supposed to be the 'Edge of the observable universe' the faint ripples of the beginning of the universe before stars began shining and matter just joining. Think of the CMB as the skin of that balloon, and our galaxy an atom of air within that balloon. The CMB is even everywhere we look. If we are not the center of the universe, it should look different.
Even if the matter expanded evenly throughout the universe, like copper atoms in a block of copper being warmed, the atoms on one side of the center would appear to move faster than the atoms on the side nearest the observer. Maybe the universe is bigger than you can see over the cosmic event horizon.
movementiseternal
Feb 13, 2015
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Basilioexablm CASTLE
3 / 5 (2) Feb 13, 2015
The Big Bang happen exactly at this coordinates:
x = 0
y = 0
z = 0
t = 0
This is my most stupid answer for a most stupid question.
movementiseternal
Feb 13, 2015
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Benni
1.4 / 5 (9) Feb 13, 2015
The Cosmic Microwave background is supposed to be the 'Edge of the observable universe' the faint ripples of the beginning of the universe before stars began shining and matter just joining. Think of the CMB as the skin of that balloon


Do you know what the purpose of the James Webb telescope is? It is intended to use infrared spectrometry to see right through that "skin", and when it does & if it sees galaxies on the other side of that skin a whole new universe will open up & be a lot bigger than anything you ever imagined.
Tuxford
1 / 5 (9) Feb 13, 2015
Where did the Big Bang happen?


Only in the meager minds of fanciful astrophysicists clinging to their theologically based belief systems.


@Drive, You beat me to it! It's the same place where black holes only exist.
Losik
Feb 13, 2015
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Losik
Feb 13, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Stylz
5 / 5 (1) Feb 13, 2015
In my baedroom...last night. *not really*
Stylz
5 / 5 (1) Feb 13, 2015
The contemporary attitude of layman public regarding the Big Bang can be summarized into few rules:

1) When some scientific article supports the Big Bang, then all opponents of it are violently downvoted and censored for "pseudoscience", no matter, how the arguments presented in article are shallow and weak.

2) When some scientific article doubts the Big Bang instead, then all opponents are loudly saying "I told you so" - no matter, how the arguments presented in article are shallow and weak.


People don't trust what they don't understand, part of the human condition.
Uncle Ira
4 / 5 (8) Feb 13, 2015
I thought the big bang happened every where at the same short time. Is that wrong? I am not sure how to say it exactly but I will try. From what I read in start, every thing that is was compressed into a itty bitty tiny space. The whole universe and all space and every thing was there and the bang (or what ever they are calling it now) happened in all of it and the space and universe started spreading out and growing.

I am probably wrong but that is the picture I got in my head from reading what books I did.
harmonograms
5 / 5 (2) Feb 13, 2015
Big Bang Theory: We observe that new time and space within the universe is continuously unfolding. Yesterday, the universe contained less time and space. Go back enough yesterdays and you arrive at an infinitesimally small point of infinite energy. That is the essence of BB Theory!

Since there was no time or space before the BB event, we know that the universe must have existed for all time. Even though the universe had a beginning, it has also always existed. This is a wonderful paradox and our universe is full of them.

I think the venerable old "Balloon Analogy" needs to be updated because it tends to give the false impression that we exist at the outer edge of something, when every point within the universe shares the same frame of reference of observing itself to be the oldest, most centralized and most distant point from the singularity as every other point within the universe.
Nashingun
1 / 5 (7) Feb 13, 2015
Make up fictional stories and wild assumptions till you rot, you won't get the right answer from just merely playing your delusional minds around.

Science fiction stories is so cheap to create and produce movies in Hollywood today for zombie science fanatics to feast on, and yet everything they saw are but figments of their imaginations. Daydreaming is fast becoming a casual trend with this science loving people today.
Losik
Feb 13, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
rgw
not rated yet Feb 13, 2015
How high is up?
cracker_mon
3 / 5 (2) Feb 13, 2015
If the Big Bang happened, then it happened somewhere, whether that somewhere was a tiny spot or everywhere. That somewhere as an existent place had to be. If the somewhere was, then it had to be somewhere other than where it is now.---Following that line of thought, it was there at a time, and since time was non-existent until after such Big Bang it stands to reason that there had to be another--time? Possibly, or some other measurement that we in our limited spatial perceptions cannot fathom. However, any other (unknown to us) measurement points to a before and with that as a result the big bang and/or the big expansion simply cannot be the beginning. There cannot be a before nor a place before a beginning without there being a before and therefore there cannot be a beginning that we can understand.
cracker_mon
not rated yet Feb 13, 2015
The Cosmic Microwave background is supposed to be the 'Edge of the observable universe' the faint ripples of the beginning of the universe before stars began shining and matter just joining. Think of the CMB as the skin of that balloon


Do you know what the purpose of the James Webb telescope is? It is intended to use infrared spectrometry to see right through that "skin", and when it does & if it sees galaxies on the other side of that skin a whole new universe will open up & be a lot bigger than anything you ever imagined.

I can imagine unending, with absolutely no boundaries, no edges and no time used as restraints. Can you imagine bigger than that?
Returners
1.6 / 5 (7) Feb 13, 2015
I wonder how it came to be that the ancient philosophers got it right in many ways. Light was "good" and fundamental to the nature of the universe. Many creation stories have light as the first or one of the first things created. Science currently has light and it's speed limit, integrated into the very fabrice space, time, and matter: E=mc^2, and so forth.

I don't think it is a coincidence, I think they were on the right track all along, and just didn't have the more modern mathematical language to express it. consider that Newton discovered much of the mathematics that we use in physics and some of chemistry and optics and other fields, and that was some 1600 to 3000 years after the early philosophers.

"Let there be light!" Could that be the CMB? But the passage deal with both the abstraction of light and the physicality of light. Physics equations really don't deal with the "meta" part, because they can only answer the "physical".
Returners
1.6 / 5 (7) Feb 13, 2015
The scientific method is good at what it was invented to discover: the nature and workings of the physical world around us. The scientific method hits a wall when it starts to explore the origins of reality itself, because it cannot allow a hypothesis that can't be tested to be considered.

Metaphysical questions are not "useless", they are in fact "scientific" questions, Logical endeavors, which are outside the scope of purely physical proofs, and deal more with abstraction (not quite the right word actually), or extension of laws which exist around us, under the assumption that a continuing source of Order oversees all these things.

The philosophers could see that there would ultimately be a single "Being" which originated all things.

The first cause("B"eing) must be intelligent, because it created intelligent things(us and animals).

If the universe overules our intelligence then it must be intelligent and either come from or be that "Being".
Benni
1 / 5 (6) Feb 13, 2015
The Cosmic Microwave background is supposed to be the 'Edge of the observable universe' the faint ripples of the beginning of the universe before stars began shining and matter just joining. Think of the CMB as the skin of that balloon


Do you know what the purpose of the James Webb telescope is? It is intended to use infrared spectrometry to see right through that "skin", and when it does & if it sees galaxies on the other side of that skin, a whole new universe will open up & be a lot bigger than anything you ever imagined.

I can imagine unending, with absolutely no boundaries, no edges and no time used as restraints. Can you imagine bigger than that?

It won't matter what the size, but it will cause astrophysicists to scrap the current "redshift models" & come up with new a new Integral for calculating redshift with a different limit of the supposed age of the universe that has been pegged at 13.7 Gyr as used in the current Integral.
christophokeefe
not rated yet Feb 13, 2015
If relativity is accounted for than we are in the middle of the big stretch or what I would call the big fizz as the univers expanded so did time and it would look like a Big Bang from our point of view. There has been no change in the speed or duration of the Big Bang and it continues all around us.
NoTennisNow
not rated yet Feb 13, 2015
There was no before. When and where all created by the big bang. Think of virtual particles. There is not a supply of them lurking somewhere. They just appear and than annihilate each other unless one of the pair is captured by a black hole
RealityCheck
1.5 / 5 (8) Feb 13, 2015
Fraser, what's up man!? You rehashrd a silly presumptuous piece based on increasingly untenable Big Bang 'fantasy' concocted by people during the last century, when religionist/superstitious 'brainwashing' and LDS/Magic-Mushroom 'tripping' made even the most bizarre 'explanations' seem 'like a good idea at the time'!

Seems you haven't yet recovered from ingesting all that brain-rotting crap, judging from your above 'bizarre' piece.

Fraser, seriously, if you are not going to 'sober up' and actually keep up with the latest mainstream science which is finally ridding itself of this Big Bang 'psycho' religious/drug crap, then you should refrain, for the sake of the pre-pubescent intellects which your above 'fantasy explanations' seem to be aimed at). Fraser, it appears your 'conditioning' as a 'hack journo' pretending to do 'science writing' is way past its 'use-by-date'. You should retire to the country and churn out 'children's fairy stories'? It appears to be your forte'. :)
russell_russell
not rated yet Feb 13, 2015
The principle of everywhere.
Playing favorites with everything observable...measurable.
Where did everywhere go?

I have to go now.
Go where?
Go looking for antimatter.

Uncle Ira
4.2 / 5 (5) Feb 13, 2015
Fraser, what's up man!?


@ Really-Skippy. How you are too? Every thing is fine with me again too. Thanks for asking.

Why you call me Fraser? I'm still the Ira-Skippy like I always been. I see you showed up in the bad mood and calling me names again. But that's okay because I've been called names by peoples who were really good at it like you are not. Maybe your real talent is in doing diligences with your toes and stuff and not too much the name calling.

Don't forget now, after that last little ugly postum to made to me with all the bad words in him, I told you Cher. I'm cut gonna cut you if you stand there, and choot you if you run (us coonass is lazy like that, I am not going to chase to slap you some more.)
htoknow
1 / 5 (8) Feb 13, 2015
Esoptrics, the algebraic logic of the mirror (Dynamic Mirror Theory), explains the Universe's start in the terms of: 2^256 levels of a 4th dimension Esoptrics calls Ontological Distance (OD for short); units of time it calls alphakronons (K for short) each c. 10^-96 sec. relative to us; & duo-combos of 1 fermion ever logically concentric with 1 boson. In the first c. 10^58 K (c. 10^-38 sec.), God created 8 mini-bangs I'll ignore. At 10^58 K, came a BIG bang as God created 1 duo-combo at OD2^256 (Omega for short). 1K later, & thru that first 1, God created 8 duo-combos at Omega -1; 1K later, 8 at Omega -2; 1K later, 8 at Omega -3, etc., until 2^255K later, God created 8 duo-combos at OD2^255; 1K later, thru each of those 8, 8 at OD2^255 -1, etc.. Follow that &, in c. 10^115 K (c. 10^-18 sec.) God created c.10^231 duo-combos. As each set of 8 forced the prior one from the same center of creation, a Universe half an atom's size at 10^-38 sec was trillions of l.y. at 10^-18 sec.
RealityCheck
1.8 / 5 (5) Feb 13, 2015
Posted by poor bot-voting Uncle Ira moron:
@ Really-Skippy. How you are too? Every thing is fine with me again too. Thanks for asking.

Why you call me Fraser? I'm still the Ira-Skippy like I always been. I see you showed up in the bad mood and calling me names again. But that's okay because I've been called names by peoples who were really good at it like you are not. Maybe your real talent is in doing diligences with your toes and stuff and not too much the name calling.

Don't forget now, after that last little ugly postum to made to me with all the bad words in him, I told you Cher. I'm cut gonna cut you if you stand there, and choot you if you run (us coonass is lazy like that, I am not going to chase to slap you some more.)
If only this poor bot-voting Ira idiot had two real brain cells to rub together it would find the name of the AUTHOR of the above article is "Fraser Cain" over at "Universe Today" (universetoday.com).

Poor bot-voting nincompoop Ira.
Uncle Ira
3.9 / 5 (7) Feb 13, 2015
@ Really-Skippy. So what I make the mistake by misunderstanding what you said? I make plenty of mistakes like most peoples do. You should try making a mistake or two for your self sometime and once in awhile, then you wouldn't look so silly all the time.

So does that mean you are going to apologize to the Fraser-Skippy or apologize to the Ira-Skippy? If it's the Ira-Skippy you can save your time because I told you that wasn't going to work on me again after the last 13 or 12 times.
RealityCheck
1.5 / 5 (8) Feb 13, 2015
Poor poor bot-voter Uncle Ira twerp. Mistakes others names for his own; dumps a post full of his usual troll turds based on that mistake; then proceeds to demand that I should make the apologies?!

Just how merrily moronic do they make these insensible in-breds 'over there' in that slime pool whence 'it' arose?...yep, THAT moronic, folks! Poor poor 'thing'. It would be hilarious if it wasn't so tragic. Sad.
Returners
1 / 5 (2) Feb 14, 2015
The Big Bang happened in The Land Before Space-Time.
Benni
1 / 5 (7) Feb 14, 2015
@ ira-Skippy.
So does that mean you & the Stumpy are going to apologize to Benni for your complicity in making identity theft & physical confrontation threats as I quote him below, a post on July 27, 2014 which garnered him your 5 Star vote?

"@benni-haha

ROTFLMFAO
you DO REALISE that if I wanted to steal your info, I would just ping your server and get your internet IP which would give me the ability to go right to your doorstep? Easy since I KNOW your login here AND when you are on."

Read more at: http://phys.org/n...html#jCp

I seriously wonder if the housewives of America are really as impressed as you think with the Copy & Paste expertise at which the two of you are so adept as compared to those of us who who can follow all the Differential Equations in Einstein's GR.

Benni
1 / 5 (5) Feb 14, 2015
@ ira-Skippy.
So does that mean you & the Stumpy are going to apologize to Benni for your complicity in making identity theft & physical confrontation threats as I quote him below, a post on July 27, 2014 which garnered him your 5 Star vote?

"@benni-haha

ROTFLMFAO
you DO REALISE that if I wanted to steal your info, I would just ping your server and get your internet IP which would give me the ability to go right to your doorstep? Easy since I KNOW your login here AND when you are on."

Read more at: http://phys.org/n...html#jCp

I seriously wonder if the housewives of America are really as impressed as you think with the Copy & Paste expertise at which the two of you are so adept as compared to those of us who who can follow all the Differential Equations in Einstein's GR.


Ahhhh Stumpo, you disappoint me casting a 1Star vote for your own post on July 27....What's with you? You have no pride, or no ability to do Differential Equations, or both?
Uncle Ira
5 / 5 (5) Feb 14, 2015
@ ira-Skippy.
So does that mean you & the Stumpy are going to apologize to Benni for your complicity in making identity theft & physical confrontation threats as I quote him below, a post on July 27, 2014 which garnered him your 5 Star vote?


Bennie-Skippy let me tell you one thing. I never stole anything in my life, so that is the lie. And let me tell you one another thing, if I was going to steal something from somebody I sure as heck could find something better to steal than your silly identity from the physorg.

Benni
1 / 5 (4) Feb 14, 2015
@ ira-Skippy.
So does that mean you & the Stumpy are going to apologize to Benni for your complicity in making identity theft & physical confrontation threats as I quote him below, a post on July 27, 2014 which garnered him your 5 Star vote?


Bennie-Skippy let me tell you one thing. I never stole anything in my life, so that is the lie. And let me tell you one another thing, if I was going to steal something from somebody I sure as heck could find something better to steal than your silly identity from the physorg.
........but you still haven't apologized for casting a 5 Star vote for Stumpo's post threatening to commit identity theft against me & threatening to confront me physically at my "doorstep". Apology forthcoming? Or do you still stand for that 5 Star vote?
Uncle Ira
3.9 / 5 (7) Feb 14, 2015
.......but you still haven't apologized for casting a 5 Star vote for Stumpo's post threatening to commit identity theft against me & threatening to confront me physically at my "doorstep".


That's not the part I give him the 5 for. They don't let me vote for just parts of the postum.

But it does not matter non. He didn't threaten to steal your identity. Why would he want it anyhoo? He did not threaten do you any bodily harm either. That's why you need to work on your reading stuffs, so you don't keep making these silly mistakes. Start with "could" and "will" and "am" and "if" to get you going.

Apology forthcoming?


Not in this life time Skippy. I only apologize when I make the mistake about giving the 1 when I mean to give the 5.

Or do you still stand for that 5 Star vote?


I said that, try to pay attention better.
Benni
1 / 5 (4) Feb 14, 2015
.......but you still haven't apologized for casting a 5 Star vote for Stumpo's post threatening to commit identity theft against me & threatening to confront me physically at my "doorstep".


That's not the part I give him the 5 for. They don't let me vote for just parts of the postum.

But it does not matter non. He didn't threaten to steal your identity. Why would he want it anyhoo? He did not threaten do you any bodily harm either. That's why you need to work on your reading stuffs, so you don't keep making these silly mistakes. Start with "could" and "will" and "am" and "if" to get you going.

Apology forthcoming?


Not in this life time Skippy. I only apologize when I make the mistake about giving the 1 when I mean to give the 5.

Or do you still stand for that 5 Star vote?


I said that, try to pay attention better.

.........meaning you stand by threats of cyber-criminals to perform identify theft & bodily harm.
Uncle Ira
3.4 / 5 (5) Feb 14, 2015
.........meaning you stand by threats of cyber-criminals to perform identify theft & bodily harm.


Meaning if you did understand what I was meaning to say you must be a lot more stupid than I meant to give you credit for.
adam_russell_9615
not rated yet Feb 14, 2015
A 4d person laughs at the 3d person and tells him "There is no place in your universe where the big bang began", and then he wonders when the big bang happened. And the 5d person laughs.
Benni
1 / 5 (4) Feb 14, 2015
......meaning you stand by threats of cyber-criminals to perform identify theft & bodily harm.


Meaning if you did understand what I was meaning to say you must be a lot more stupid than I meant to give you credit for.


..... thus continuing to highlight the fact that by your unwillingness to repudiate your 5 Star vote, not only do you condone threats by Stumpy's post to me threatening to commit identity theft & bodily harm by coming directly to my "doorstep", it remains that your 5 Star vote for El Stumpo's post casts you into the cold cruel light of day to be as repugnant a human being as he is. The two of you would probably be good cellmates?
mbee1
not rated yet Feb 14, 2015
All this assumes the big stretch actually happened. A new math model says it did not happen and if the universe is flat it might not have happened either. the jury is still out of the curve of the universe as the curve is pretty small and the measurements error could swing it either way.
Sean44
not rated yet Feb 15, 2015
All it takes is 1 drone going back far enough in time to screw up the initial conditions. :-p And one can wipe out entire alien civilizations with a flick of a single atom. Screwing up the symmetry one could possible destroy 1/3 of the universe. On the flip side, one could possible make the universe much more inhabitable after the initial time period.
viko_mx
1 / 5 (2) Feb 15, 2015
We have no reason to think that ever happened big bang. My answer to the question in the title of the article is "nowhere".
Returners
1 / 5 (2) Feb 15, 2015
All it takes is 1 drone going back far enough in time to screw up the initial conditions. :-p And one can wipe out entire alien civilizations with a flick of a single atom. Screwing up the symmetry one could possible destroy 1/3 of the universe. On the flip side, one could possible make the universe much more inhabitable after the initial time period.


There's supposedly a theory that says even if you could travel back in time, your actions would somehow cause the same sequence of events to happen.

I suppose the only person who could possibly know this would be a time traveler, and they aren't talking...Except "God" and (false)"prophets" anyway.

One problem with Time Travel is you run out of space to put things. lol.

What is it, Pauli Exclusion principle or something like that.
big-ben-not-the-bell
1 / 5 (3) Feb 15, 2015
The Big Bang happened several trillion times, at the center of each Galaxy. Each Galaxy was created by its own individual Lesser Big Bang. It wasn't just one event, it was a chain reaction of Lesser Big Bangs that produced all the matter in our Universe.
murray_crawford85
5 / 5 (1) Feb 15, 2015
Movement / energy is eternal!
Movement / energy is never lost!

In any environment thats temperature is that of absolute zero (0 Kelvin / −273.15 °Celsius) energy will cease to exist; and although we have not yet been able to observe or produce such an environment we cannot conclude absolute zero as being an impossibility.
Movement / energy cant born from nothingless hokkus pokkus!

Within a vacuum the production of energy from nothing is experimentally verifiable, however because this energy is immediately lost due to self annihilation, it is the creation of surplus energy which cannot be born from nothingness.
All movement / energy can never be in the same place!

At the quantum level it is entirely possible for energy to exist in the same place and has been experimentally proven (IE. Einstein-Bose condensate).

Therefore your entire hypothesis (whatever it may have been) is based on either incorrect or unfounded assumptions.
mbee1
3 / 5 (2) Feb 15, 2015
Murray makes a number of mistakes. At absolute zero the energy is still there as mass. At the quantum level you can show that the big bang did not exist and never will exist as a recent hypothesis shows. I suggest another approach, it is called humility. When one does not know much about the universe big and small which is the state of science today, a little humility on each "answer" would be a great step forward.
yvchawla
Feb 16, 2015
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