Preparing for alien life

November 10, 2014 by Johnny Bontemps,
There may be a trillion planets in our galaxy, the Milky Way, one-fifth of which may be Earth-like. Credit: Serge Brunier

At a recent event sponsored by NASA and the Library of Congress, a group of scientists and scholars explored how we might prepare for the inevitable discovery of life beyond Earth.

In 1960, the astronomer Francis Drake pointed a radio telescope located in Green Bank, West Virginia, toward two Sun-like stars 11 light years away. His hope: to pick up a signal that would prove might be out there. Fifty years have gone by since Drake's pioneering SETI experiment, and we've yet to hear from the aliens.

But thanks to a host of discoveries, the idea that life might exist beyond Earth now seems more plausible than ever. For one, we've learned that life can thrive in the most extreme environments here on Earth—from deep-sea methane seep and Antarctic sea ice to acidic rivers and our driest deserts.

We've also found that liquid water isn't unique to our planet. Saturn's moon Enceladus and Jupiter's moons Ganymede and Europa harbor large oceans beneath their icy surfaces. Even Saturn's largest moon, Titan, could spawn some kind of life in its lakes and rivers of methane-ethane.

And then there's the discovery of exoplanets, with more than 1800 alien worlds beyond our Solar System identified so far. In fact, astronomers estimate there may be a trillion planets in our galaxy alone, one-fifth of which may be Earth-like. As Carl Sagan famously said: "The Universe is a pretty big place. If it's just us, seems like an awful waste of space."

Now some scientists believe the hunt for life beyond Earth may well pay off in our lifetimes. "There have been 10,000 generations of humans before us. Ours could be the first to know," said SETI astronomer Seth Shostak.

But what happens once we do? How would we handle the discovery? And what would be its impact on society?

This was the focus of a conference organized last September by the NASA Astrobiology Institute and the Library of Congress. For two days, a group of scientists, historians, philosophers and theologians from around the world explored how we might prepare for the inevitable discovery of life—microbial or intelligent—elsewhere in our Universe.

The symposium was hosted by Steven J. Dick, the second annual Chair in Astrobiology at the Library of Congress. The video presentations can be viewed here.

"Three Horse Races"

Of course, the impact of discovery will depend on the specific scenario. In a talk titled "Current Approaches to Finding Life Beyond Earth, and What Happens If We Do," Shostak described three ways—or three "horse races"—for finding life in space.

First, we could find it nearby, in our Solar System. NASA's Curiosity Rover is currently surveying the Martian surface for signs of past or present life. And Europa Clipper, a mission to Jupiter's icy moon, is now under consideration.

Second, we could "sniff it out" of the atmosphere of an exoplanet, using telescopes to look for gases such as methane and oxygen that might hint at a biosphere. The James Webb Space Telescope, to be launched in 2018, will be able to carry out that kind of work.

This artist’s concept illustrates the idea that rocky, terrestrial worlds like the inner planets in our Solar System may be plentiful, and diverse, in the Universe. Credit: NASA/JPL–Caltech

And of course we can pursue the kind of SETI work pioneered by Frank Drake, and keep listening for radio signals among the stars.

Finding life in our Solar System, which likely would be microbial, might not have as great an impact as hearing from an intelligent civilization far away. We'd have to worry about issues like contamination. We might also discover some alternative biochemistry, perhaps uncovering new insights about the nature of life. But that kind of discovery wouldn't affect us as much as the prospect of communicating with intelligent life.

Then again it'd take hundreds, if not thousands of years for a signal to travel back and forth, Shostak pointed out. So that third scenario would only teach us a very few things right away, such as their location or what kind of star they orbit.

However, picking a signal might have other tantalizing implications about the nature of alien intelligence.

Alien Minds & Artificial Intelligence

Several researchers, including Shostak, put forward the following premise: "That once a society creates the technology that could put them in touch with the cosmos, they are only a few hundred years away from changing their paradigm from biology to artificial intelligence."

The idea is based on the so-called "time scale argument" or "short window observation." Many researchers predict we'll have developed a strong artificial intelligence by 2050 here on Earth—about a hundred years after the invention of computers, or a hundred and fifty years after the invention of radio communication.

"The point is that, going from inventing radios to inventing thinking machines is very short—a few centuries at most," Shostak said. "The dominant intelligence in the cosmos may well be non-biological."

In a talk titled "Alien Minds," Susan Schneider, a philosophy professor at the University of Connecticut, explored that idea further. The concept of "whole brain emulation" is becoming increasingly popular among certain researchers, she explained. So are other far-fetched sounding ideas like "mind uploading" and "immortally." So, to her, a civilization capable of radio communication would likely be "super-intelligent" by the time we hear from them.

She also argued that alien super-intelligence would be conscious in principle, since the neural code is akin to a computational code, and thoughts could well be embedded in a silicon-based substrate. A silicon-based intelligence would also have tremendous implications for long distance space travel.

This illustration of Europa (foreground), Jupiter (right) and Io (middle) is an artist’s concept. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

But again, a recurring theme throughout the conference was to be aware of our anthropocentric tendencies. There's been a huge gap between microbial life and intelligent life on Earth, and even intelligent life has even evolved on a spectrum.

Lori Marino, a neuroscientist and current director of the Kimela Center for Animal Advocacy, argued as such in a talked titled "The Landscape of Intelligence." We have a lot to learn from other intelligent beings here on Earth (such as dolphins) before even thinking about communicating with aliens.

Philosophical Impact

Ultimately, the greatest implications might be philosophical. Whether it turns out to be microbial, complex or intelligent, finding life elsewhere will raise intriguing questions about our place in the cosmos.

A couple of presentations, by theologian Robin Lovin and Vatican astronomer Guy Consolmagno, even addressed the potential impact on the world's religions.

According to the “short window observation” idea, a civilization capable of radio communication would likely have developed artificial intelligence by the time we hear from them.

But what if we don't find anything soon, or even at all?

The search itself can give us a sense of direction, and help us forge a planetary identity, argued the philosopher Clement Vidal in a talk titled "Silent Impact." And if we're truly alone, then we should start taking better care of life here on Earth, and contemplate our duty of colonization, he added.

In the meantime, astrobiology can help narrow the gap between the sciences and humanities, as many presenters emphasized. And it can be a step toward integrating our knowledge across a wide range of disciplines.

The search itself can help us forge a planetary identity, said philosopher Clement Vidal. Credit: NASA

So, how do we prepare for something we know so little about? We do so "by continuing to do good science, but also by realizing that science is not metaphysically neutral," concluded the conference host Steven Dick.

He added: "We prepare by continuing to question our assumptions about the nature of and intelligence."

Explore further: Researcher says 'We are going to find life in space this century'

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1 / 5 (12) Nov 10, 2014
Well the Great Philosopher Gauthama Buddha of India verily said the Universe is full of other lives and disclosed that even life there are 31 spheres. Leave alone all that, its simple logic that in an Infinite Universe if we are the only beings, we mathematically dont exist.

1 in Infinity is ZERO.

Working this backwards, we can deduce that the Infinity has Infinity planets with life in the Universe as well as infinite number of Suns, Non Living Planets, etc. Infinity has every thing in Infinie numbers. MIND BOGGLING.

The Experts are just looking at the tip of an Infinite Iceberg. With all the research in laboratories, talks , forums , Blogs etc, no one will ever find the beginning of the Universe.

Some say Big Bang. What were the mechanics for Big Bang?. How did all matter come to one point before the Big Bang?. How was that matter created?. What was that Matter?. How did the Void Start?. Is the Void and the Universe same?.
1 / 5 (7) Nov 10, 2014
Why do I get the feeling that there setting us up for something "they" already know?

How about this scenario, the aliens are coming alright, coming to save us and transport all of humanity to a new planet because either we screwed Earth it up so bad, it can not recover, or a natural disaster we don't now about will wipe out life on earth? Oh, wait, was that a movie already?
1.9 / 5 (9) Nov 10, 2014
Great, now the alarmists are crying about aliens....
2.1 / 5 (7) Nov 10, 2014
How did all matter come to one point before the Big Bang?. How was that matter created?. What was that Matter?. How did the Void Start?. Is the Void and the Universe same?.

Great questions and the short answers are a paradox. The mass in the universe is merely infinitesimally small points where time and space isn't.

The universe began as a point of infinite energy which began dissolving into mass and space-time (the BB event), in a process called universal entropy.

Since there was no time or space before the BB event, we know that the universe must have existed for all time. Note that there is no void; there is no such thing as an outside of the universe - new time and space continuously unfolds within the universe; the universe does not expand into something.
1.3 / 5 (14) Nov 11, 2014
So many assumptions, so many speculations that have no use, no value and no hold on the origin of the universe. Not a pinch of everything we read in this article along with loads of comments can be factual. Science today is for mediocre wannabe's pretending to be smart that knows origins and pre-historic records. I don't mind people play smart but not on my account and the tax payers money. But most of these fictional world of the interstellar and space explorations are often shouldered by the general public who was not asked for these. And those who claim smart will always put their names on top for a noble prize like Mr. Higgs.
4.4 / 5 (13) Nov 11, 2014
How did all matter come to one point before the Big Bang?

You don't understand the Big Bang at all, do you? Matter was not 'at a point'. Space expanded (The BB is not an explosion, but an expansion). EVERY point in the universe is where the BB happened. That is why we see the cosmic microwave background coming from all directions (if it were an explosion starting from one 'point' then we would see the afterglow coming only from that direction)

before the Big Bang?

Space-time. Say it slowly: Spaaaace-tiiiiime. Not "space and time". There is no 'before' in the sense you mean..

How was that matter created?

Matter wasn't at the big bang. It was created during the inflation (symmetry breaking). Think of it like phase changes when you cool a gas that then becomes liquid and turns solid. The early universe was so 'hot' that matter couldn't 'gel'. Only once the expansion set in could stuff clump together into matter - and stay that way.
4.2 / 5 (10) Nov 11, 2014
But what happens once we do? How would we handle the discovery? And what would be its impact on society?

Really depends on how many people get wind of it initially (and whether it's easy for others to notice). If it's few and easy to conceal I'm guessing politicos will keep a lid on it indefinitely.
After all: those with the power to keep a lid on it are already in power. They have nothing to gain from letting others know (and everything to lose). Change is risk - and risk is anathema to people in power.

Not saying that this is already happening. Just how I would expect politicians to act.

. I don't mind people play smart

You wouldn't know smart if it stared you in theface.
vlaaing peerd
4.3 / 5 (6) Nov 11, 2014
There is no need to prepare, If there ever is first ever proof of alien life, it will be so circumstantial that some will accept the finding as they are and others (probably mostly reli-fanatics) will have more than enough space to find the lack of evidence a good reason to keep denying it for a few generations. Once there is undeniable evidence, some of those will keep denying it and others will fit it into their theories and humans will keep arguing as ever about what's real and what is make-belief.
4.6 / 5 (11) Nov 11, 2014
Because red shift or there is more rational reason?

Redshift is a rational reason. There are no 'more rational' and 'less rational' reasons.
Also the homogeneity of the cosmic microwave background and the changing matter density the farther you look out (i.e.: back) are pretty good clues.

Or right now is such a fashion in science.

What do you mean by 'fashion'. Sometimes there are 'hot topics' in science (i.e. where suddenly a wealth of new data becomes available due to a breakthrough in sensot technology). But the Big Bang model isn't a 'fashion'. It's the model that best describes what we observe. It's that simple.

Nor see any reason cosmic background radiation is not diffused radiation from such sources in space

If it came from distinc sources it would not be so homogeneous.

We do not know the properties of the vacuum of space

If your point is" we don't know everything so all we say now is wrong" then you should probably take up religion.
1 / 5 (6) Nov 11, 2014
There aren't any lil green men, but ETs and ALFs...they are and have been here- check out
1 / 5 (2) Nov 11, 2014
The followers of Magic SkyKing will be delighted to hear about aliens. Especially if we can have any type of two-way contact with them. You see, everyone here on earth is already christian, terrorist muslim, or a soulless atheist (or other heretic). There's no new groups of naive peoples to murder into following SkyKing so you can earn a magic box in the sky to live in after you die. I think the street proselytizers finally got the clue, because I haven't had someone come up to me in a parking lot and give me a flyer for a free god BBQ in a long time.

Maybe the aliens have no spiritual concepts whatsoever and whatever religion they hear about first will go viral among them. SkyKing help us all if that shit happens.
4.6 / 5 (9) Nov 12, 2014
Faith in the emergence of a very dense and very hot spot of nowhere for no reason and without purpose that gave rise to the universe now scienties with inexplicable to me self-confidence call science but faith in the Creator who created the universe, the earth and man with intelligence and purpose scienties and many other people call religious fantasy.

Whut? Would you mind rereading your stuff before you post? That's just word salad.

Without time there can not be a change in the state of certain system from one state to another.

Time is something that WE attribute to observable change. BTW: It's spacetime. If you put spacetime through the wringer (like in black holes) all kind of weird stuff happens. The notion that 'time' as something separate from other stuff (and that it somehow effects change) went out the window in 1907 with Relativity.
4.6 / 5 (9) Nov 12, 2014
How it can be demonstrated that the expandable space can cause a Doppler effect?

Standard candles, parallax and spectroscopy.

Note that the comsological redshift is NOT the Doppler effect. For this kind of redshift nothing is moving - space is expanding. You can get doppler shift from the relative motion of the object to Earth on top of that. This is why, despite expansion, we do see the very occasional blue shifted object.

Elastic space expands in absolute inelastic space or what?


fatigue of light

Please. Even the founder of 'tired light' acknowledged that it doesn't work (as it would blur images of distant objects in a way we do not observe)
3.7 / 5 (9) Nov 13, 2014
Ren82 claimed
Belief in unreasonable emergence of highly organized universe with its finely tuned physical laws to support it temporarily, some modern scientists call science
No. You are badly mistaken, universe is a very harsh place, only the touch survive, there are no mammals on Venus, Mars, Moon, Asteroids - with no evidence of them at all, zero zip :-(

Just like you easy acceptance of the belief of Moses. He believed a god told him to write a book which is the claim of quite a few people through history but, not one had any useful education that could not come from imagination & intellect !

So Ren82, where is there any evidence of Moses' claim a god spoke to him ?

Where is Moses buried or can u contact him in heaven or should it be hell since he took decades to write the book & like all other humans gets punished by his god ?

Evidence Ren82 of god telling Moses ?

Hey, have you heard of this:-
4.6 / 5 (10) Nov 13, 2014
Belief in unreasonable emergence of highly organized universe

By what logic do you call this 'unreasonable'? We don't know how many false starts the nuiverse had or how many other universes there are. Without that number no statistical analysis (i.e. no pronouncement how 'reasonable' something is) can be made.

We are here. So at least we know it is possible. That says nothing about how likely it is (beyond excluding the "it is impossible" scenario).

The rest if your post is word-salad. Please reread your posts before hitting the 'submit' button. Make sure each sentence contains a subject (optionally an object) and a verb. Also look up the words. Most of the ones you use do not mean what you think they mean.
4.6 / 5 (10) Nov 13, 2014
Loss of energy due to the interaction of electromagnetic waves with the free atoms in space

Which is exactly what the guy -who came up with the idea- had to concede. If that were the reason for redshift then we would see blurring (as such interactions would scatter light in all directions.). We would see more blurring the farther something is. That is not observed. Also we would see different shifts at different frequencies (as atoms don't interact with all frequencies the same). This is also not observed.

Also the spectral lines would be blurred in a way that is not observed.

Why after each point of the space expands, the atoms do not expand?

Because atoms are held together by an equilibrium which is dependent on distances. If that weren't so then electrons bound to atoms would immediately fly off into space with expanding space. It's an energy minimum - if you push it any one way (energetically) then it just rolls back into the minimum.
1 / 5 (3) Nov 13, 2014
it is Ludacris to believe that there is no alien life in our universe or even in just the milky way galaxy alone. Is there intelligent life? that is a whole other question. I think that there is intelligent life, however I don't know if we will ever come into contact with it. (good chance we blow ourselves up before that point) have they been to our planet without our knowledge? or do certain people know and are covering it up? these questions are fun to think about as well and id like to hear some peoples opinions on the subject. :D
3.7 / 5 (9) Nov 13, 2014
Ren82 claimed[q ... there is no reason to exclude the Creator of the equation of life, only for pure speculation. Given your comment earlier "..the idea of a creator" and the fact the idea only came from a human who claimed a god spoke to him then there is obviously no reason to factor in a (personal) creator who cannot communicate

Where is there any evidence Ren82 for the claim a god spoke to any human Eg Moses ?
3.5 / 5 (8) Nov 14, 2014
Ren82 claimed
Everywhere in our highly ordered, beautiful and harmonious world we can see the idea of the Creator
How is this consistent with 'sin' when all are suffering from various diseases, parasites, cancers, accidents etc

It is not highly ordered except by narrow interpretation, at many levels there is chaos with continuous interactions, everything is moving all the time. How is there harmony when all of nature is about "eat & be eaten" & competes ie. "EATS" ?

There are over 10 million bacteria species competing for resources & survival.

Eg. Your gut has >1Kg of bacteria constantly eating (& each other) to survive, ie Cannibals. If it is out of balance you get illnesses of various types & some people die. This is suffering all through nature, 99% of all species that ever lived are extinct, we are the top 1% hence the toughest but, with obviously short life spans that's how nature works.

Where is there evidence a (personal) creator spoke to Moses ?
3.5 / 5 (8) Nov 14, 2014
Ren82 claimed
There is no competition between living organisms in their normal environment and range of habitat, where in fact complement each other.
This is a staggering claim that is not observed in ANY environment from bacterial through to high life-forms in any natural environment. This outrageous claim demands EVIDENCE, this is a Science site, please remember that ?

Where is the source of this idea, yours without observation or a credible research group ?

You Ren82 claim, when various species of mice compete with each other for food under the predatory gaze of hawks, crows & eagles etc on grasslands or plains or forests etc there is NO competition, they decide to die exactly when the predators need to eat so they can live, procreate & feed their young, is this ever observed anywhere ?

You still haven't offered ANY evidence of moses' claim a god spoke to him ?
4.1 / 5 (9) Nov 14, 2014
@Ren82 Everywhere in our highly ordered, beautiful and harmonious world we can see the idea of the Creator.
Everywhere I carry my hammer, I see nails. And then according to freeFromThinking I commit all my energies and time trying not to murder my neighbors, all of humanity, and then myself because I lack an invisible daddy to punish me
3.3 / 5 (7) Nov 14, 2014
Ren82's waffle has nothing to do with Evidence
In fact, the violation of natural habitat of organisms confuses bio balance of nature and leads to unnatural for them competition for available resources and ultimately to a gradual recovery of biobalansa, each time to a more unsustainable level at the expense of the mass extinction of species, which gradually reduces the biodiversity of the planet and cause more inefficient living environment.
Please focus on my question as they are put & answer in clear & precise terms please:-

1. Evidence a god spoke to Moses or anyone for that matter ?

2. Evidence of & I quote
There is no competition between living organisms in their normal environment...

In pursuit of the evidence it seems you need to define "competition" & "normal" as its clear u are mixed up !

But please focus on 1, so far all you have is a book with CLAIMS of Moses spoken to by a god.

Is there ANY evidence some god spoke to Moses ?

Anywhere please ?
3.3 / 5 (7) Nov 14, 2014
Ren82 appears deluded
Normal relationships between plant and animal species are built on the basis of mutual interest.
Beg pardon, how does eating a plant offer mutual interest to other than animal eating the plant ?

Are you deluded, eating a plant destroys the plant, can't you see that ?

Evidence it is of interest to the plant being eaten ?

Ren82 claimed
When two people have a personal conversation is rare to have a third-party witnesses who can testify for what they talked about.
U ONLY have a claim, nothing more.

God of moses refuses to speak to anyone - except by another claim of Mohammed.

So U also believe all claims of Mohammed ?

Ren82 shows ignorance with this claim
Evidence is in the Bible, which is very accurate historically.
There is NO evidence of any conversation, only claims.
As some places existed in a story does not make stories true, why can't u see that ?

Your god must be so smart, he acts exactly like he doesnt exist !
2.7 / 5 (7) Nov 14, 2014
Much of the bible was translated from virtual garbage. It was translated into right-to-left languages and then translated back many times. Temples in Rome even played on the fact. The Temple of Isis had a reflection pool in which text could be read backwards with a different meaning. In the bible ROME could be transposed with AMOR, meaning love. Thus much of the 'love' quoted in the old&new testaments may have been references to Rome where any inspirations actually occurred. With Rome hidden Constatine could mascarade Jerusalem as a holy city, despite all temples actually found to be Roman Also dogs were considered gods in Rome. GOD <-> DOG as every English speaking child knows
3.3 / 5 (7) Nov 14, 2014
"The point is that, going from inventing radios to inventing thinking machines is very short—a few centuries at most," Shostak said. "The dominant intelligence in the cosmos may well be non-biological."

We are probably an experiment.
4.2 / 5 (10) Nov 15, 2014

You forget God's son Jesus, who came down on Earth to talk to people about God's truths and principles. And it was sacrificed to redeem their sins and give them a chance for salvation.

I see that you care about these issues, but the site is not suitable for their discussion and you can look for more information on other more suitable places.

Your creationist bullshit isn't suitable here.
3.5 / 5 (8) Nov 15, 2014
Ren82 claimed
You forget God's son Jesus, who came down on Earth to talk to people about God's truths and principles.
What was god doing for several hundred years between Moses & jesus - watching lots of suffering ?

jesus echoed greeks "do unto others" of some 600 years prior only 4 people wrote about him but, all accounts are different why ?

Y did jesus never write anything, no dad's education then ?

Y did jesus travel so little to ONLY speak to a small number of people ?

Y did moses' god & jesus ignore chinese, asians, american indians, europeans ?

Why didnt god DO 100% of communicating to ALL peoples at the SAME time to SHOW he loves ALL ?

Your god looks very impotent !

Ren82 claimed
And it was sacrificed to redeem their sins and give them a chance for salvation.
So if they are redeemed & believe in moses, jesus, mohammed then WHY do they continue to suffer - just the SAME as before & same as animals ?

Y do U ignore mohammed's claim after jesus ?
Captain Stumpy
4.3 / 5 (6) Nov 15, 2014
Ren82 said
I see that you care about these issues, but the site is not suitable for their discussion and you can look for more information on other more suitable places
this is very true...

but you need to also understand that having a claim that is based upon a known fallacy (faith or religion) is just as delusional as trying to argue politics with a tree

faith is the belief in something without evidence
science is the definition of reality using evidence, experimentation, etc

when you make claims that are creationist, you are simply ignoring years of science while conjecturing based upon a belief in something without evidence, which, by definition, cannot be scientific

1 / 5 (3) Nov 15, 2014
We do not have to look for them. They already found us long long ago. To hear some tell it, we have 18 of them working on our own bases as employees ?!! We are most probably bio-engineered by at least one or more alien species and in all likelihood share DNA with them. What we call our 'souls' are a gift to us to spread the Universal God's 'cells'!...AND give us intelligence at the same time, about 12,500 years ago give or take a millenia. Consider before that time we spent a half a million hears and did nothing but throw rocks and crude spears; then sprouted seemingly full grown cities, complete with square street blocks and plumbing?!! DNA and RNA under similar, dis-similar or totally different base pair sequences probably litter the cosmos like water in asteroids and Oort objects. We would be well served to be wary of carelessness in handling even objects found in deep space, even so called gas could contain spores that has floated there for eons...waiting.
3 / 5 (4) Nov 15, 2014
Wow. Woo from a would-be..

How unusual.
3.7 / 5 (6) Nov 16, 2014
Until now I presented scientific facts...

I must have missed that post...
Captain Stumpy
4.2 / 5 (5) Nov 16, 2014
Until now I presented scientific facts
no, you have given your point of view, which is called unsubstantiated conjecture without evidence
AKA - a belief/faith

you have yet to link studies that refute anything i have linked, and your posts are never substantiated with evidence, only your perspective, like so
To believe in something you must be sure of it. Whether this will certainly thanks to inner intuition, or thanks to acquired spiritual or scientific knowledge, does not matter
yes, it does matter
it matters whether you can provide evidence of your belief to others
if you cannot, it is a FAITH, and therefore NOT SCIENTIFIC
just because you believe in something doesn't make it true
children "believe" in the easter bunny, but that doesn't make it real, it only makes them gullible

you believe in a religion
that makes you gullible, NOT strong, smart, or anything else because you have no ability to prove why
you can only say that you believe
1 / 5 (4) Nov 16, 2014
What a load of piffle, ETs have been and are here and all around our neck of the woods You DODOs might as well go put your heads back in the sand so you can keep on getting your govt grant $$s.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (3) Nov 17, 2014
I exhibited many good reasons why
and i gave you empirical evidence in studies
which raises the question: given the education you claim, and the fact that there is overwhelming evidence for evolution, and even your quote
Who wants will understand. In science there is no room for feelings and desires, but for objective and creative thought
then why is it you still have your head firmly stuck in your own backside?

the evidence is clear:
in our various conversations on several comment threads, i have given you empirical evidence and studies proving evolution and more

you have given conjecture and what you call "many good reasons"

you've offered NO evidence
NO studies
NO links
NO reputable peer reviewed journals

take your RELIGION and troll elsewhere
it is not even original... having bastardized other religions (& cherry-picking) for the popular topics & including them in the text
which is why the book is so disjointed/contradictory

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