Switchboard in the brain helps us learn and remember at the same time

January 13, 2009,

The healthy brain is in a constant struggle between learning new experiences and remembering old experiences, a new study in this week's PLoS Biology reports. Virtually all social interactions require the rapid exchange of new and old information. For instance, normal conversation requires that while listening to the new information another person is providing, we are already retrieving information in preparation of an appropriate reply. Yet, some memory theories assume that these different modes of memory cannot happen at the same time and compete for priority within our brain.

Brain researchers now provide the first clear evidence supporting a competition between learning and remembering. Their findings also suggest that one brain region can resolve the conflict by improving the rapid switch between learning and remembering. The researchers included Willem Huijbers, Cyriel Pennartz, and Sander Daselaar of the Netherlands' University of Amsterdam, and Roberto Cabeza of Duke University.

The researchers used a novel memory task that forced learning and remembering to occur within a brief period of time. In the study, a group of adults in their 20's looked at a set of regular words presented in the middle of a screen. Participants rapidly tried to remember whether the words had previously been studied or not. Simultaneously, a set of colorful pictures were presented in the background. Meanwhile, the participants' brains were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). After brain scanning, participants were surprised with another memory test including the colorful background pictures instead of the words.

In support of a memory competition, the surprise test showed that learning the pictures is much more difficult when simultaneously remembering a word. At the same time, learning the pictures becomes easier when a word is forgotten. The brain scans revealed that the brain areas involved in learning of the pictures were also less activated when words were simultaneously remembered. In other words, the process of remembering appears to suppress the brain regions involved in learning, the authors note.

The researchers also found one region in the left frontal part of the brain that was only active when both learning and remembering succeeded. Interestingly, activity in this region was specific to those participants that showed minimal suppression of learning activity. In other words, whether they simultaneously remembered a word or not, it did not influence their brain activity during the learning of the background pictures.

vThis frontal region could function as a switchboard in the brain, the researchers suggest. As learning and remembering cannot happen at the same time, this region might help us to rapidly switch the state of our brain between "learn" and "remember" modes.

It was already thought from patient studies that this frontal region is important for rapid switching between tasks and rules. Patients with damage to this area have problems in rapidly adapting to new situations and tend to persevere in old rules. The same region is also affected in older adults.

Future research should reveal the extent and practical implications of impairments in switching between learning and remembering in patients and older adults, and whether we can improve our switchboard through training.

Citation: Huijbers W, Pennartz CM, Cabeza R, Daselaar SM (2009) When learning and remembering compete: A functional MRI study. PLoS Biol 7(1): e1000011. doi:10.1371/ journal.pbio.1000011
biology.plosjournals.org/perls … journal.pbio.1000011

Source: Public Library of Science

Explore further: Pinpointing the cells that control the brain's memory flow

Related Stories

Pinpointing the cells that control the brain's memory flow

January 31, 2019

From the cab driver heading for Times Square to the commuter returning home on the freeway, we all carry maps in our head labeled with important locations. And a new Columbia study in mice shows that, by directing the delicate ...

MRI scans reveal how brain protects memories

February 1, 2019

Two distinct parts of the human brain—the neocortex and the hippocampus (a part of the brain involved in higher-order brain functions) - have been shown to help protect our memories from interfering with one another.

Genes on the move help nose make sense of scents

January 9, 2019

The human nose can distinguish one trillion different scents—an extraordinary feat that requires 10 million specialized nerve cells, or neurons, in the nose, and a family of more than 400 dedicated genes. But precisely ...

Drug can boost long-term memory of objects

January 8, 2019

Allergy sufferers may use antihistamines to reduce symptoms, but new research reveals that better long-term memory might be possible with pro-histamine treatment. Long-term memory is used to remember anything before 48 hours ...

Recommended for you

Meteorite source in asteroid belt not a single debris field

February 17, 2019

A new study published online in Meteoritics and Planetary Science finds that our most common meteorites, those known as L chondrites, come from at least two different debris fields in the asteroid belt. The belt contains ...

Diagnosing 'art acne' in Georgia O'Keeffe's paintings

February 17, 2019

Even Georgia O'Keeffe noticed the pin-sized blisters bubbling on the surface of her paintings. For decades, conservationists and scholars assumed these tiny protrusions were grains of sand, kicked up from the New Mexico desert ...

Archaeologists discover Incan tomb in Peru

February 16, 2019

Peruvian archaeologists discovered an Incan tomb in the north of the country where an elite member of the pre-Columbian empire was buried, one of the investigators announced Friday.

Where is the universe hiding its missing mass?

February 15, 2019

Astronomers have spent decades looking for something that sounds like it would be hard to miss: about a third of the "normal" matter in the Universe. New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory may have helped them ...

What rising seas mean for local economies

February 15, 2019

Impacts from climate change are not always easy to see. But for many local businesses in coastal communities across the United States, the evidence is right outside their doors—or in their parking lots.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.