The Journal of Forensic Sciences is the official publication of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS). It is devoted to the publication of original investigations, observations, scholarly inquiries, and reviews in the various branches of the forensic sciences. These include Pathology and Biology, Toxicology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, General, Odontology, Physical Anthropology, Jurisprudence, Criminalistics, Questioned Documents, Engineering Sciences, and Digital & Media Sciences. Similar submissions dealing with forensic-oriented aspects of the social science are also published. All papers are peer-reviewed. As papers clear the peer review and editorial processes, they will be included in this electronic version of the journal. The printed version of the journal will be distributed the first week of the month that the publication is issued. The official publication of this journal for citation purposes is the online version.