New Type of Retinol Cell Discovered in Primates

Oct 30, 2007
New Type of Retinol Cell Discovered in Primates
A pinhead size 512-electrode array in the center of this "neuroboard" records the output of retinal neutrons. Credit: Photo by Alan Litke

Scientists are one step closer to understanding how the retinas of humans and primates turn incoming light into coded messages communicated to the brain.

A team of researchers funded by the National Science Foundation recently reported their discovery of a type of cell in the output (ganglion cell) layer of the retina that likely plays a key role in transforming visual images, received by the rods and cones, into coded messages headed to the brain. Ultimately, their research could help guide the design of devices to provide artificial sight to the blind.

The research paper by Alan Litke, adjunct professor of physics at the University of California at Santa Cruz, and his colleagues at the same university and the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif., appeared recently in the Journal of Neuroscience.

The retina is an exquisitely complex and sophisticated image detector that converts incoming light from an image in the environment into a set of highly processed sub-images. The retinal cell type discovered by the researchers was first observed more than 40 years ago in other animals. Scientists have been looking for its counterpart in primates ever since.

"To find these cells after so many decades of searching is truly a stunning achievement," said NSF Program Director Krastan Blagoev. "The discovery was made by a multidisciplinary team of physicists and neuroscientists working together on the problem. These results highlight the importance of supporting a cross approach when investigating complex biological processes."

Litke said the work had been a "fantastic journey through high-energy physics, neurobiology, technology and human health." Litke and his team started out developing instruments to look for the fundamental particles of the universe such as the top quark and the Higgs boson. They soon realized they could apply some of those technological concepts to studying neural systems. "Now we are using the new technology for experiments that will help guide the design of future retinal prosthetic devices."

Scientists know that at least 22 anatomically distinct types of retinal ganglion cells exist in the primate retina. Knowing the physiological properties of these ganglion cells is essential to understanding how a primate's visual system functions. Only a handful of these cells have been studied in detail so far. Using their newly developed multielectrode array system for large-scale recording of neural activity, the researchers discovered a physiologically distinct population of ganglion cells which they have named "upsilon cells."

Their qualities suggest they may contribute to the perception of motion. Litke believes the upsilon cells went undetected by traditional physiological techniques for so long because they are a tiny fraction of the million ganglion cells in the primate retina. With their 512-electrode array, Litke and his colleagues plan to search for other unknowns.

Source: NSF

Explore further: Stanford researchers rethink 'natural' habitat for wildlife

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Discovery of retinal cell type ends 4-decade search

Oct 09, 2007

A research team combining high-energy physicists from the University of California, Santa Cruz, and neuroscientists from the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif., has discovered a type of retinal cell that may help monkeys, ...

Recommended for you

Plants with dormant seeds give rise to more species

11 hours ago

Seeds that sprout as soon as they're planted may be good news for a garden. But wild plants need to be more careful. In the wild, a plant whose seeds sprouted at the first warm spell or rainy day would risk disaster. More ...

Researchers successfully clone adult human stem cells

14 hours ago

(Phys.org) —An international team of researchers, led by Robert Lanza, of Advanced Cell Technology, has announced that they have performed the first successful cloning of adult human skin cells into stem ...

User comments : 0

More news stories

Researchers successfully clone adult human stem cells

(Phys.org) —An international team of researchers, led by Robert Lanza, of Advanced Cell Technology, has announced that they have performed the first successful cloning of adult human skin cells into stem ...

Male monkey filmed caring for dying mate (w/ Video)

(Phys.org) —The incident was captured by Dr Bruna Bezerra and colleagues in the Atlantic Forest in the Northeast of Brazil.  Dr Bezerra is a Research Associate at the University of Bristol and a Professor ...

Researchers develop new model of cellular movement

(Phys.org) —Cell movement plays an important role in a host of biological functions from embryonic development to repairing wounded tissue. It also enables cancer cells to break free from their sites of ...

Impact glass stores biodata for millions of years

(Phys.org) —Bits of plant life encapsulated in molten glass by asteroid and comet impacts millions of years ago give geologists information about climate and life forms on the ancient Earth. Scientists ...