Establishing a link between air pollution and dementia

More people around the world are falling ill and dying from dementia than they used to. Between 2000 and 2019, the rate of dementia increased by 86%, while deaths from the cognitive disorder more than doubled. Longer life ...

Oleoyl-LPE exerts neurite stimulation and neuroprotection

Lysophospholipids are phospholipids that have just one fatty acid chain, and in recent years, the role of lysophospholipids in physiology and pathophysiology has attracted attention. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) is ...

Concerns over police head injuries

Head injuries may be worryingly common among police officers, according to a new pilot study led by the University of Exeter.

Modeling neuronal cultures on 'brain-on-a-chip' devices

For the past several years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists and engineers have made significant progress in development of a three-dimensional "brain-on-a-chip" device capable of recording neural ...

Scientists offer perspectives on cavitation science

A type of damage in soft materials and tissue called cavitation is one of the least-studied phenomena in physics, materials science and biology, say expert observers. But strong evidence suggesting that cavitation occurs ...

Peptide hydrogels could help heal traumatic brain injuries

Traumatic brain injury (TBI)—defined as a bump, blow or jolt to the head that disrupts normal brain function—sent 2.5 million people in the U.S. to the emergency room in 2014, according to statistics from the U.S. Centers ...

LED device could increase memory retention among astronauts

Hanli Liu, a professor of bioengineering at The University of Texas at Arlington, is working to improve memory and cognitive function in astronauts during space missions by directing light onto their brains.

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Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) occurs when an outside force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g. occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull.

TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, especially in children and young adults. Causes include falls, vehicle accidents, and violence. Prevention measures include use of technology to protect those who are in accidents, such as seat belts and sports or motorcycle helmets, as well as efforts to reduce the number of accidents, such as safety education programs and enforcement of traffic laws.

Brain trauma can be caused by a direct impact or by acceleration alone. In addition to the damage caused at the moment of injury, brain trauma causes secondary injury, a variety of events that take place in the minutes and days following the injury. These processes, which include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull, contribute substantially to the damage from the initial injury.

TBI can cause a host of physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral effects, and outcome can range from complete recovery to permanent disability or death. The 20th century has seen critical developments in diagnosis and treatment which have decreased death rates and improved outcome. These include imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Depending on the injury, treatment required may be minimal or may include interventions such as medications and emergency surgery. Physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy may be employed for rehabilitation.

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