Mediterranean Sea hit by marine heatwave

Marine heatwaves are extreme rises in ocean temperature over an extended period of time. Their magnitude and frequency have harmful impacts on marine ecosystems, threaten marine biodiversity and negatively impact fisheries, ...

Compound extreme events stress the oceans

It's not just the land that is groaning under the heat—the ocean is also suffering from heatwaves. In the Mediterranean Sea along the Italian and Spanish coasts, for example, water temperatures are currently up to 5 °C ...

Ocean variability contributes to sandstorms in Northern China

Extreme events such as the "North China Super Sandstorms" in March 2021 have significant impacts on human life, socio-economics and agricultural production. In addition to local meteorological conditions, sea surface temperature ...

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Sea surface temperature

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the surface.

In practical terms, the exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used. A satellite infrared radiometer indirectly measures the temperature of a very thin layer of about 10 micrometres thick (referred to as the skin) of the ocean which leads to the phrase skin temperature (because infrared radiation is emitted from this layer). A microwave instrument measures subskin temperature at about 1 mm. A thermometer attached to a moored or drifting buoy in the ocean would measure the temperature at a specific depth, (e.g. at 1 meter below the sea surface) — this temperature during the day is called temperature of the warm layer. The measurements routinely made from ships are often from the engine water intakes and may be at various depths in the upper 20 m of the ocean. In fact, this temperature is often called sea surface temperature, or foundation temperature. Note that the depth of measurement in this case will vary with the cargo aboard the vessel.

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