An optical coating like no other

For more than a century, optical coatings have been used to better reflect certain wavelengths of light from lenses and other devices or, conversely, to better transmit certain wavelengths through them. For example, the coatings ...

Where does untreated wastewater go in developing countries?

To limit the spread of disease and reduce environmental pollution, human waste (excreta) needs to be safely contained and effectively treated. Yet 4.2 billion people, more than half of the world's population, lack access ...

How consumers responded to COVID-19

The unpredictability of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on people's daily lives has facilitated changes ranging from social interactions to purchasing behavior. Adjusting to the many disruptions may seem difficult, but ...

Activists, scientists, authors among 'genius grant' fellows

An activist speaking out about inadequate waste and water sanitation in rural America, an author of young adult and children's literature reflecting the world's diversity, and a neuroscientist who used mathematics to study ...

Researchers produce low-cost hand sanitizer from waste

A Tel Aviv University breakthrough allows, for the first time, a local production of ethanol—and hand sanitizer—based on plant and paper waste, using a novel lignin (a substance found in plants) degradation process. This ...

Video: How does alcohol kill coronavirus?

How does alcohol kill this virus? With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol-based hand sanitizer became a much-sought item by hospitals and the general public alike for its ability to inactivate the coronavirus.

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Sanitation

Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple handwashing with soap).

The term "sanitation" can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location, or strategy, such as:

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