Scientists invent topological-cavity surface-emitting laser

Semiconductor lasers are the most widely used lasers due to their compact size, high efficiency, low cost and wide spectra. But they suffer low output power and low beam quality—two specifications difficult to improve simultaneously. ...

How monitoring a quantum Otto engine affects its performance

Heat engines are devices that use waste heat to perform mechanical work and generate power. The invention of heat engines ushered in an era of the industrial revolution 250 years ago. The Otto engine, which uses distinct ...

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