Faults in oceanic crust contribute to slow seismic waves

The natural structure of the rigid oceanic crust that forms a shell around Earth contains cracks and faults. These fissures are hydrothermal pathways for heat, water, and chemical solutions to move between the ocean and the ...

A closer look at the creation of a metamorphic sole

When two of Earth's tectonic plates collide, the heavier plate is forced underneath and back into the mantle in a process called subduction. During the early stages of newly initiated subduction zones, the uppermost part ...

An ocean 13 million years in the making

Spreading of the seafloor in the Red Sea basin is found to have begun along its entire length around 13 million years ago, making its underlying oceanic crust twice as old as previously believed.

Flare ups and crustal removal in northeast Japan

The crustal record is the geologist's book for studying the history of the Earth. It contains information to understand important aspects such as when the earliest crustal rocks separated from the mantle; the origin and evolution ...

The Red Sea is no longer a baby ocean

It is 2,250 kilometers long, but only 355 kilometers wide at its widest point—on a world map, the Red Sea hardly resembles an ocean. But this is deceptive. A new, albeit still narrow, ocean basin is actually forming between ...

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