Criminal cybersquatters

Cybersquatting was rife in the early days of the World Web of the 1990s. An individual would register a domain name that was perhaps associated with an organisation or company and even a trademarked term. The cybersquatter ...

All eyes on a new worm species

There's a worm at the bottom of the sea—and it's been discovered off the Scottish coast by a team of scientists from the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), Marine Scotland Science (MSS) and Thomson Environmental ...

Hayabusa2 drops target marker at asteroid Ryugu

The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has made some impressive feats in recent years. Roughly one year ago, and following in the footsteps of its predecessor, the Hayabusa2 spacecraft successfully rendezvoused ...

Antarctic glacier named after GFZ satellite mission 'GRACE'

A glacier in the West Antarctic has been named after the German-American satellite mission GRACE. GRACE stands for "Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment." Between 2002 and 2017, the scientific mission measured the Earth's ...

Four ways your name can affect your job prospects

What's in a name? A lot, according to research. Your name can have a huge influence on your prospects in life. Much of this is due to bias, stereotyping and other rules of thumb that people employ when making judgments about ...

Endangered sharks being eaten in UK

Endangered species of hammerhead and dogfish are among the sharks being sold as food in the UK, researchers have revealed.

The hunt for missing, dead in California fire

Given the size and scope of the devastation after a deadly wildfire swept Northern California, experts say the search to find the missing and identify victims could take months.

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Name

A name is a word or term used for identification. Names can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. A personal name identifies a specific unique and identifiable individual person, and may or may not include a middle name. The name of a specific entity is sometimes called a proper name (although that term has a philosophical meaning also) and is a proper noun. Other nouns are sometimes, more loosely, called names; an older term for them, now obsolete, is "general names".

The use of personal names is not unique to humans. Dolphins also use symbolic names, as has been shown by recent research. Individual dolphins have distinctive whistles, to which they will respond even when there is no other information to clarify which dolphin is being referred to.

Caution must be exercised when translating, for there are ways that one language may prefer one type of name over another. A feudal naming habit is used sometimes in other languages: the French sometimes refer to Aristotle as "le Stagirite" from one spelling of his place of birth, and English speakers often refer to Shakespeare as "The Bard", recognizing him as a paragon writer of the language. Finally, claims to preference or authority can be refuted: the British did not refer to Louis-Napoleon as Napoleon III during his rule.

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