Time for a radical rethink about sand?

On a sandbank on the Chambal River in northern India, the critically endangered gharial and red-crowned roofed turtle (the Chambal is the latter's last known refuge) bask side by side. It's late March and approaching the ...

Scientists recommend procedures for the protection of the oceans

Together with an international team, Senckenberg scientist Angelika Brandt has published an inventory of the current knowledge and discussions concerning marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ). With regard to urgently ...

Fires not the only threat facing Amazon

Raging wildfires have drawn the world's attention to the Amazon but immolation is just one of the dangers facing the world's largest rain forest, environmental experts across the region say.

Biochar: A better start to rain forest restoration

An indigenous farming technique that's been around for thousands of years provides the basis for restoring rain forests stripped clear of trees by gold mining and other threats.

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Mining

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock salt and potash. Any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory, is usually mined. Mining in a wider sense comprises extraction of any non-renewable resource (e.g., petroleum, natural gas, or even water).

Mining of stone and metal has been done since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials and finally reclamation of the land to prepare it for other uses once the mine is closed.

The nature of mining processes creates a potential negative impact on the environment both during the mining operations and for years after the mine is closed. This impact has led to most of the world's nations adopting regulations to moderate the negative effects of mining operations. Safety has long been a concern as well, though modern practices have improved safety in mines significantly.

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