Two birds, one stone: Green roof gardening in the city

I'm a New York native, born and raised in Ozone Park, Queens. My family has a decent amount of space in our small backyard to grow fruits and vegetables. Tomatoes, chili peppers, squash and cucumbers are just a few items ...

Tree loss from bark-beetle infestation impacts elk habitat

Although elk typically adapt to forest disturbances such as forest fires and logging, a new Journal of Wildlife Management study found that during the summer, elk avoided areas with extensive tree mortality that has occurred ...

Finding the energy for going viral

The question of how much energy a virus needs to replicate in its host translates into how likely a single infection is to become an epidemic. Writing in the International Journal of Exergy, Sevgi Eylül Ferahcan, Ayşe Selcen ...

Can social interactions affect spread of disease?

Most real-world systems, such as biological, social, and economic schemes evolve constantly. The dynamics of such systems are characterized by significantly enhanced activity levels over short periods of time (or "bursts") ...

Bacterial 'gene swapping' sparks disease outbreaks

A new study by scientists at the University of Liverpool documents, for the first time, how the ability of bacteria to swap genetic material with each other can directly affect the emergence and spread of globally important ...

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Epidemic

In epidemiology, an epidemic (επι (epi)- meaning "upon or above" and δεμος (demos)- meaning "people"), occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given human population, and during a given period, substantially exceed what is expected based on recent experience.:354 Epidemiologists often consider the term outbreak to be synonymous to epidemic, but the general public typically perceives outbreaks to be more local and less serious than epidemics:55, 354

An epidemic may be restricted to one locale, however if it spreads to other countries or continents and affects a substantial number of people, it may be termed a pandemic.:55 The declaration of an epidemic usually requires a good understanding of a baseline rate of incidence; epidemics for certain diseases, such as influenza, are defined as reaching some defined increase in incidence above this baseline. A few cases of a very rare disease may be classified as an epidemic, while many cases of a common disease (such as the common cold) would not.

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