A single-photon source you can make with household bleach

Quantum computing and quantum cryptography are expected to give much higher capabilities than their classical counterparts. For example, the computation power in a quantum system may grow at a double exponential rate instead ...

Building a bridge to the quantum world

Entanglement is one of the main principles of quantum mechanics. Physicists from Professor Johannes Fink's research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have found a way to use a mechanical ...

Remote connections? Detangling entanglement in quantum physics

Quantum computers, quantum cryptography and quantum (insert name here) are often in the news these days. Articles about them inevitably refer to entanglement, a property of quantum physics that makes all these magical devices ...

Recommendation for cryptographic key generation

Cryptography is often used in information technology security environments to protect sensitive, high-value data that might be compromised during transmission or while in storage. It relies upon two basic components: an algorithm ...

New material holds promise for more secure computing

As computers advance, encryption methods currently used to keep everything from financial transactions to military secrets secure might soon be useless, technology experts warn. Reporting today in the journal Nature, a team ...

Quantifying how much quantum information can be eavesdropped

Summary The most basic type of quantum information processing is quantum entanglement. In a new study published in EPJ B, Zhaonan Zhang from Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China, and colleagues have provided a much finer ...

Physicists reveal material for high-speed quantum internet

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have rediscovered a material that could be the basis for ultra-high-speed quantum internet. Their paper published in npj Quantum Information shows how to increase ...

page 1 from 12

Cryptography

Cryptography (or cryptology; from Greek κρυπτός, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν, graphein, "writing", or -λογία, -logia, "study", respectively) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties (called adversaries). More generally, it is about constructing and analyzing protocols that overcome the influence of adversaries and which are related to various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce.

Cryptology prior to the modern age was almost synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The sender retained the ability to decrypt the information and therefore avoid unwanted persons being able to read it. Since World War I and the advent of the computer, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread.

Modern cryptography follows a strongly scientific approach, and designs cryptographic algorithms around computational hardness assumptions, making such algorithms hard to break by an adversary. It is theoretically possible to break such a system but it is infeasible to do so by any practical means. These schemes are therefore computationally secure. There exist information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken—an example is the one-time pad—but these schemes are more difficult to implement than the theoretically breakable but computationally secure mechanisms.

Cryptology-related technology has raised a number of legal issues. In the United Kingdom, additions to the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 requires a suspected criminal to hand over their encryption key if asked by law enforcement. Otherwise the user will face a criminal charge. The Electronic Frontier Foundation is involved in a case in the Supreme Court of the United States, which will ascertain if requiring suspected criminals to provide their encryption keys to law enforcement is unconstitutional. The EFF is arguing that this is a violation of the right of not being forced to incriminate oneself, as given in the fifth amendment.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA