Why dogs can teach humans about healthier ageing

Our pet dogs could help extend human lives beyond their documented effects on people's wellbeing. Increasingly, studies are looking at how the domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is key to understanding cognition and processes ...

Modeling the brain during pain processing

The many different sensations our bodies experience are accompanied by deeply complex exchanges of information within the brain, and the feeling of pain is no exception. So far, research has shown how pain intensity can be ...

Dogs may never learn that every sound of a word matters

Despite their excellent auditory capacities, dogs do not attend to differences between words that differ only in one phoneme (e.g., "dog" vs "dig"), according to a new study by Hungarian researchers of the Eötvös Loránd ...

Imaging method reveals a 'symphony of cellular activities'

Within a single cell, thousands of molecules, such as proteins, ions, and other signaling molecules, work together to perform all kinds of functions—absorbing nutrients, storing memories, and differentiating into specific ...

How students learn from their mistakes

An fMRI-based study of error-monitoring shows that students who are focused on monitoring their own learning process, rather than on getting right answers, learn better over time.

Smiling in the masked world of COVID-19

With faces covered to help reduce the spread of COVID-19, some of the facial cues that people rely on to connect with others—such as a smile that shows support—are also obscured.

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Electroencephalography

Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy, as epileptic activity can create clear abnormalities on a standard EEG study. A secondary clinical use of EEG is in the diagnosis of coma and encephalopathies. EEG used to be a first-line method for the diagnosis of tumors, stroke and other focal brain disorders, but this use has decreased with the advent of anatomical imaging techniques such as MRI and CT.

Derivatives of the EEG technique include evoked potentials (EP), which involves averaging the EEG activity time-locked to the presentation of a stimulus of some sort (visual, somatosensory, or auditory). Event-related potentials refer to averaged EEG responses that are time-locked to more complex processing of stimuli; this technique is used in cognitive science, cognitive psychology, and psychophysiological research.

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