Making lead pipes safe

Lead leaching from pipes into the water supply is a serious public health concern. And if water sources or treatment regimens are changed, the new chemistry can cause water distribution systems that were previously safe to ...

Finding the right 'dose' for solar geoengineering

One of the key misconceptions about solar geoengineering—putting aerosols into the atmosphere to reflect sunlight and reduce global warming—is that it could be used as a fix-all to reverse global warming trends and bring ...

Detecting cyanide exposure

Cyanide exposure can happen occupationally or in low levels from inhaling cigarette smoke—or from being poisoned by someone out to get you. The effects are fast and can be deadly. But because cyanide is metabolized quickly, ...

These nine measures reveal how forests are controlled by climate

Instead of blood pressure, temperature, and heart rate, the vital signs for a forest are captured in key traits such as the amount of nitrogen in a tree's leaves, the leaf area, or the density of the wood. These "functional ...

VitalTag to give vital information in mass casualty incidents

When mass casualty incidents occur—shootings, earthquakes, multiple car pile ups—first responders can easily be overwhelmed by the sheer number of victims. When every second counts, monitoring all the victims in a chaotic ...

Hard cider, with a shot of sugar

Autumn is the season for falling leaves, pumpkin-spice-flavored everything and apple cider. Yet new research indicates that, in addition to alcohol, some hard ciders may contain a hefty dose of added sugar, which may not ...

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure (force per unit area) exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels, and constitutes one of the principal vital signs. The pressure of the circulating blood decreases as it moves away from the heart through arteries and capillaries, and toward the heart through veins. When unqualified, the term blood pressure usually refers to brachial arterial pressure: that is, in the major blood vessel of the upper left or right arm that takes blood away from the heart. Blood pressure may, however, sometimes be measured at other sites in the body, for instance at the ankle. The ratio of the blood pressure measured in the main artery at the ankle to the brachial blood pressure gives the Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI).

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