Commercial bees spreading disease to wild pollinating bees

July 23, 2008,

Bees provide crucial pollination service to numerous crops and up to a third of the human diet comes from plants pollinated by insects. However, pollinating bees are suffering widespread declines in North America and scientists warn that this could have serious implications for agriculture and food supply. While the cause of these declines has largely been a mystery, new research reveals an alarming spread of disease from commercial bees to wild pollinators.

In a study published in the July 23 issue of the online, open-access journal PLoS ONE, Michael Otterstatter and James Thomson of the University of Toronto present compelling evidence that commercially produced bumble bees used in greenhouses are infecting their wild cousins, and that this is likely contributing to reductions in the natural pollinating bee population.

Otterstatter and Thomson investigated the occurrence of disease in wild bumble bees in southern Ontario, Canada, particularly in areas close to industrial greenhouse operations. In addition, the authors used a combination of laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling to simulate the spread, or 'spillover', of disease from commercial bees to wild populations, and to predict the extent and severity of such spread in the wild.

The researchers found that commercial bumble bees often carry a harmful and highly contagious pathogen, Crithidia bombi, and that these bees regularly escape from greenhouses and interact with wild bees at flowers. Near greenhouses, the rates of infection were startling: up to one half of wild bumble bees were infected with C. bombi, whereas no bees harboured this pathogen at sites away from greenhouses.

Furthermore, the frequency and severity ofinfections declined with increasing distance from greenhouses, suggesting that these agricultural operations are foci of disease for wild pollinators.

The mathematical model that Otterstatter and Thomson developed confirmed that pathogen spillover from commercial bees would allow diseaseto invade wild pollinator populations near greenhouses. The model predicts that, although disease may build up slowly at first, given sufficient time, spillover will result in a large-scale epidemic among wild bees.

The commercial bumble bee industry is expanding worldwide. The abundance of disease in commercial bees, and the international trafficking of infected hives, may pose a substantial threat to wild bee pollinators. The authors emphasize that improved management of domestic bees through, for example, greater attention to their diseases and their overlap with wild species, would greatly reduce, or even eliminate, pathogen spillover.

Citation: Otterstatter MC, Thomson JD (2008) Does Pathogen Spillover from Commercially Reared Bumble Bees Threaten Wild Pollinators? PLoS ONE 3(7): e2771.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002771

Source: Public Library of Science

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4.7 / 5 (3) Jul 23, 2008
C.bombi should be on everyone's minds these days, 'cause we need those little buggers! -:)
1 / 5 (2) Jul 24, 2008
-Even though you fellas do not have the ability to assimilate my processes,that does not make the stateent I am about to make untrue,as I have protocol information and experience that you do not.

Our bees and birds are being depleted by lifter spray daily from what you would call a UFO,the taskers work out of each state in two groups of ten.

The lifters,as they have for centuries use a lift(Anti grav) process that is high energy frequency and they use a process of liquid water jets with the heating frequency to put a small cloud around themselves.

All viruses come from labs since the plague n the US in WW 1 that stated in a midwest barracs area.

I live in Michigan and see the lifters in the daytime down low out of Radar range with the clouds on them in formation.

Other countries and states where they are also reported have bird flu and H viuses after they are sighted after incubation . Colony collapse disorder has been sprayed on our bees and I consider it an act of war. The taskers in these ships have come to this earth through Israel and the US also from off our field.

Certain major corporations support the depletion of foodstuffs in certain areas for their purposes.

Every flu virus comes from lifter spray originally,and this is not a believe it or not story. I am a scientist who understands the process. Only certain countries are being sprayed, and if you are paying attention,they are hand pollinating in the Orient. There is a reason for that.

I have explained many times here I am a grid scientist,we understand the earths processes and anti gravity also. So until you boys start paying attention to the reality of this earths war actions,you will continue to be depleted.
1 / 5 (2) Jul 24, 2008
I am sorry for errors in my statements,I am sanctioned by the NSA boys and my computer has many,many problems to keep me at bay,but I complain alot and sometimes it works okay,but I have specific problems with certain sites and this is just one of them. The lifters are called "Tigers" by the way and are made in the good ole USA along with a certain amount of 'BigShips" that come up to the surface on elevators. Keep a vigilant watch out for cloud ships and you will possibly get a clue.
not rated yet Jul 24, 2008
....okay.........somebody get the big net....and lots of Lithium ... a barrel-full....'cause someone has finally lost it here!!!!!!-
1 / 5 (2) Jul 24, 2008
Okay,DG Beach, here ya go, This old Papa does not need any Drugs or any of your weirdo hugs either. My information is correct.

Please dont use your little tactics to try and destroy the messenger.As he will not put up with your brand of BS. You are part of the problem,rather than the fix.

Anti grav ships built this earth long ago buddy and the Nazca lines in South America are the ""Follow" lines to get assist from grid lift for heavily laden big ships long ago

You might try doing your proper homework and stay off the drugs yourself before you ever task back at me with your garbage,as you see,I wont put up with it.

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